Educational workshop on heritage interpretation

first_imgFrom March 31 to April 2, 2017 in Ogulin at the Hotel Frankopan will be held an educational workshop on the interpretation of heritage organized by Visitor center Ivana’s fairytale house, Croatian Association for Heritage Interpretation and the company Muze doo with the support of the Ministry of Culture.The educational workshop on heritage interpretation is intended for tourist guides, museologists, curators, nature conservationists, leaders of tourist boards, heads of tourist agencies, employees of interpretation centers and anyone who wants to develop excellence and efficiency in interpreting Croatian natural and cultural heritage.The goal of the workshop is professionalization and development of the profession, in two ways. In the theoretical part, top lecturers and experts in the field of heritage interpretation, interpretive planning and cultural tourism will talk about defining heritage interpretation, its main principles, role and importance in the cultural, economic and sociological development of the community.Photo: Batana EcomuseumIn the practical part, the participants will clearly see that the interpretation is by no means a brief presentation of the facts, but above all an enchanting and intriguing game with countless heritage meanings. In order to witness this, as part of the program, participants will visit the Ivana’s Fairytale House Visitor Center, as a good example from the practice of heritage interpretation. The center is also the main host of the workshop, which with its team, led by the director Ankica Puškarić, in the fairytale Ogulin, the homeland of fairy tales, will host more than 40 participants, lecturers and workshop leaders for this occasion.The lecturers at the workshop are top experts in the field of heritage interpretation and interpretive planning, museology and cultural tourism: the president and co-founder of the Croatian Association for Heritage Interpretation, prof. dr. sc. Darko Babić, vice president and co-founder of the Croatian Association for Heritage Interpretation and director of Muze doo consulting and management in culture and tourism, Dragana Lucija Ratković Aydemir, vice president and co-founder of the Croatian Association for Heritage Interpretation mr. sc. Vlasta Klarić, CEO of Interpret Europe, Thorsten Ludwig, and heritage interpreter and owner of Secret Zagreb, Iva Silla.WORKSHOP PROGRAMlast_img read more

Read More →

How to rule a gene galaxy: A lesson from developing neurons

first_img“Coherent regulation of multiple genes can pose substantial logistical problems, akin running a successful business employing thousands of people or controlling the vast Galactic Empire from the Star Wars movies” remarks Dr. Eugene Makeyev, a senior author of the study from the MRC CDN. “Our work suggests that fine-tuning messenger stability is an important mechanism orchestrating gene expression changes during normal brain development”.Defective regulation of messenger stability, cellular localization and translation into corresponding protein products often leads to serious medical conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. A subset of the TTP/miR-9 target genes have been previously linked to these disorders and it will be important to determine whether deregulation of TTP or/and miR-9 plays a causative role in such pathological contexts.Moreover, by uncovering a hitherto unknown mechanism mediating neuronal differentiation, the study by Makeyev and co-authors should facilitate development of novel cell replacement therapies for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. “Natural renewal of neurons in the adult brain is notoriously inefficient and it likely becomes virtually non-existent as we grow older. With a continued increase in the average life expectancy neuron replacement might become a common medical procedure at some point in the future. Luke Skywalker and his aging father would certainly relate to this idea”. LinkedIn Email Share The human organism contains hundreds of distinct cell types that often differ from their neighbours in shape and function. To acquire and maintain its characteristic features, each cell type must express a unique subset of genes. Neurons, the functional units of our brain, develop through differentiation of neuronal precursors, a process that depends on coordinated activation of hundreds and possibly thousands of neuron-specific genes.A new study published in Nature Communications by researchers from the MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology (MRC CDN) at IoPPN, carried out in collaboration with the Tian lab at the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School (USA), unravels how this synchrony is achieved at the molecular level. The researchers found that many RNA messengers encoding neuronal proteins contain specialized sequences that can promote their destabilization in the presence of an RNA-binding protein called tristetraprolin, or TTP.This protein is expressed at relatively high levels in proliferating precursors and non-neuronal cells but down-regulated in developing neurons by a brain-enriched regulatory RNA called miR-9. The TTP/miR-9 pair functions as a switch limiting unscheduled accumulation of neuronal messengers in non-neuronal cells and ensuring coordinated accumulation of these molecules in neurons.center_img Share on Facebook Pinterest Share on Twitterlast_img read more

Read More →

Some public schools have switched to a four-day school week — do kids learn more or less?

first_imgEmail How would you react if you were told that your local public school planned to change the schedule from the traditional Monday-through-Friday model to a schedule that contained four longer school days? Would you worry about long days for young children, their academic accomplishments and, of course, childcare?Across the US many public school districts have considered the option of schedule change as a way to manage budget cuts and reallocations. A surprising number of schools, especially in the western United States, have adopted just such a policy. In most cases, students in these schools now attend school Monday through Thursday.Parents can easily imagine that young children would suffer from longer school days. Also, children of all ages could have too many opportunities to forget what they had learned over a three-day weekend. Share on Twitter Pinterest So, what impact is the four-day-week schedule actually having on student achievement?Mark Anderson, a faculty member at Montana State University, and I embarked on a study to examine the impact of the four-day week on student learning. Our results show a positive impact on student achievement.Here’s how we did our studyWhen we started, we found only few evaluations of the policy change had been carried out. Furthermore, most evidence was anecdotal and simply described the changes in a single district.We found these descriptions to be unsatisfactory. It allowed for too many other factors that could influence student performance, other than a district’s decision to switch schedules.For example, if the four-day schedule were adopted in school districts where scores were already going up, the existing trend would confound the effect of the schedule change.We were not able to do a large-scale experiment whereby we could assign some children to four-day schedules and some others to traditional schedules to examine the impact. But we did the next best thing.We gathered data over time for schools that had adopted a four-day week and then we chose a “matched” sample of schools that had stuck with a traditional five-day week.The schools were “matched” in terms of size and school characteristics, as well as socioeconomic characteristics such as ethnicity and free- and reduced-lunch enrollment.We could then examine average grade achievement on the state‐mandated tests over a longer period and compare changes in achievement for the four-day-week schools versus the traditional-schedule schools.In order to avoid the problems in comparing state achievement scores across states, we used data only from schools in Colorado, where over one‐third of the school districts have adopted the four‐day schedule.What did we find?Our results, based on fifth grade mathematics scores, generally show that achievement rises after the introduction of a four-day week. We found that, even after we take into account the variations due to different socioeconomic levels, the four-day school week is associated with an increased achievement.We found that, on average, math scores increased by about seven points, meaning that the percentage of fifth graders scoring either proficient or advanced in mathematics went up from about 60% to about 67%, after the schedule change to a four-day week.These results were statistically significant, meaning there is a very low probability that the results occurred by chance.The relationship between the schedule change and achievement in reading is also positive, although the increase was smaller. We found scoring proficient or advanced changed from about 66% to about 69%. But in the results for reading, we could not reject the possibility that they occurred by chance.Overall, we found no evidence that switching to a four‐day week harms student performance.These results naturally led to speculation on the mechanisms that drove the results. Could teachers be using alternative instruction methods that enhance learning?Maybe students on a four-day schedule miss fewer days of school; a number of prior studies have pointed to attendance being a factor in achievement. Or, is it that teachers miss fewer days of school on the alternative schedule?We did not have enough information in our data to really examine the different possible ways in which the schedule change could improve academic outcomes. Incomplete data on attendance suggested that attendance improved when the schedule was shortened to four days.But more work would be required on this issue. We also don’t know what is the impact of a four-day week on high schoolers, or how teachers manage this change.Overall, we believe that the evidence that we found is an important one and should be part of the conversation on education policy.By Mary Beth Walker, Dean of the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State UniversityThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.center_img Share Share on Facebook LinkedInlast_img read more

Read More →

Researchers find neurological notes that help identify how we process music

first_imgNot surprisingly, the study found that musicians have more potent oscillatory mechanisms than do non-musicians–but this discovery’s importance goes beyond the value of musical instruction.“What this shows is we can be trained, in effect, to make more efficient use of our auditory-detection systems,” observes study co-author David Poeppel, a professor in NYU’s Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science and director of the Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics in Frankfurt. “Musicians, through their experience, are simply better at this type of processing.”Previous research has shown that brain rhythms very precisely synchronize with speech, enabling us to parse continuous streams of speech–in other words, how we can isolate syllables, words, and phrases from speech, which is not, when we hear it, marked by spaces or punctuation.However, it has not been clear what role such cortical brain rhythms, or oscillations, play in processing other types of natural and complex sounds, such as music.To address these questions, the NYU researchers conducted three experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), which allows measurements of the tiny magnetic fields generated by brain activity. The study’s subjects were asked to detect short pitch distortions in 13-second clips of classical piano music (by Bach, Beethoven, Brahms) that varied in tempo–from half a note to eight notes per second. The study’s authors divided the subjects into musicians (those with at least six years of musical training and who were currently practicing music) and non-musicians (those with two or fewer years of musical training and who were no longer involved in it).For music that is faster than one note per second, both musicians and non-musicians showed cortical oscillations that synchronized with the note rate of the clips–in other words, these oscillations were effectively employed by everyone to process the sounds they heard, although musicians’ brains synchronized more to the musical rhythms. Only musicians, however, showed oscillations that synchronized with unusually slow clips.This difference, the researchers say, may suggest that non-musicians are unable to process the music as a continuous melody rather than as individual notes. Moreover, musicians much more accurately detected pitch distortions–as evidenced by corresponding cortical oscillations. Brain rhythms, they add, therefore appear to play a role in parsing and grouping sound streams into ‘chunks’ that are then analyzed as speech or music. LinkedIn New York University researchers have identified how brain rhythms are used to process music, a finding that also shows how our perception of notes and melodies can be used as a method to better understand the auditory system.The study, which appears in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, points to a newfound role the brain’s cortical oscillations play in the detection of musical sequences and suggests musical training can enhance the functional role of brain rhythms.“We’ve isolated the rhythms in the brain that match rhythms in music,” explains Keith Doelling, an NYU Ph.D. student and the study’s lead author. “Specifically, our findings show that the presence of these rhythms enhances our perception of music and of pitch changes.” Share on Facebook Emailcenter_img Pinterest Share on Twitter Sharelast_img read more

Read More →

Mothers’ comments linked to eating disorders in Asian young adults

first_imgPinterest Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share The first study to look at the influence of Asian parents on their young adult child’s body dissatisfaction levels and disordered eating in Singapore has found significant differences with Western culture, leading to calls for a tailored approach to treatment.The study was carried out by a research collaboration between the University of Exeter Medical School, James Cook University, Singapore and the Australian National University. It found that negative comments made by mothers had more impact on their children’s self-image regardless of gender, in a culture where fathers are more authoritative and mothers more nurturing than in the West. This differs from Western studies in which comments made by mothers were more likely to influence daughters and fathers had more impact on sons.The research, partially funded by the Singapore Children’s Society and published in the journal Body Image, comes against a backdrop of growing numbers of children developing eating disorders in the island nation, with figures now on a par with the UK. Although most prevalent in girls, a growing number of boys are being diagnosed with eating disorders. Currently, the Western approach to treatment is adopted in Singapore and across Asia. However, researchers argue that cultural differences mean that a more tailored approach is needed to educate parents and to treat young Asian people effectively.center_img LinkedIn Email The research team assessed questionnaire responses from 383 young adults, of whom 69 per cent were female. They looked at the impact of parental comments in relation to body weight, shape and eating habits.Lead author Samuel Chng, a PhD student at the University of Exeter Medical School who is from Singapore, said more research was now needed to stop the problem spiraling further. He said: “Cultural family values are very different between Asia and the West, yet countries like Singapore have adopted Western strategies to this growing problem. In order for young people to get the best support and for health services to achieve value for money, more research is needed in this area to develop the best approach.”Co-author Dr Daniel Fassnacht, at Australian National University, said: “In Singapore, negative parental comments on their child’s weight and shape were linked to greater body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. It is crucial to educate parents about the pervasive influence their negative comments have on their child’s eating behaviour.”A spokesman for Singapore Children’s Society said: “”Singapore Children’s Society offer research grants that support a range of graduate and undergraduate research relevant to better understanding the welfare of children and their families in Singapore. Having supported the earliest phase of Samuel Chng’s research, we are pleased that it has now been published and congratulate the author.”last_img read more

Read More →

Link between ADHD diagnoses and academic expectations identified

first_imgLinkedIn Share on Facebook Brosco and co-investigator Anna Bona, a graduating Miller School medical student, found that from 1981 to 1997, time spent teaching 3- to 5-year-olds letters and numbers increased 30 percent. They also discovered that the percentage of young children enrolled in full-day programs increased from 17 percent in 1970 to 58 percent in the mid-2000s. And 6- to 8-year-olds in 1997 saw time spent on homework increase to more than two hours a week, when a decade earlier their peers were studying less than an hour.While ADHD is a neurobiological condition, Brosco said it is influenced by age-dependent behaviors and demands of the environment. As academic activities have increased, time for playing and leisure has decreased, resulting in some children being seen as outliers and ultimately being diagnosed with ADHD. Although Brosco’s study does not prove causality, it does highlight a need for additional research on the effects of increasing academic standards for young children.“We feel that the academic demands being put on young children are negatively affecting a portion of them,” he said. “For example, beginning kindergarten a year early doubles the chance that a child will need medications for behavioral issues.”Brosco added that the study should not be seen as maligning full-day programming or education for young children. Children should, however, participate in learning activities that are developmentally age appropriate. At such a young age, he adds, what’s most important is that kids experience free play, social interactions and use of imagination. For parents eager to spur academic achievement, Brosco recommends putting away the flash cards and worksheets, and instead playing a board game, cooking a meal or reading a book together.“In the United States we’ve decided that increasing academic demands on young children is a good thing,” Brosco said. “What we haven’t considered are the potential negative effects.” Email Pinterestcenter_img A new study led by Jeffrey P. Brosco, M.D., Ph.D., professor of clinical pediatrics at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, has identified a possible correlation between the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and increasing academic demands on young children.In an article published in JAMA Pediatrics, Brosco hypothesized that increased academic standards since the 1970s have contributed to the rise in diagnosis of ADHD.“When we researched educational and public policy literature for studies that documented time children spent on academic activities, we were alarmed to find how substantially education had changed since the ’70s,” said Brosco, who is also associate director of clinical services at the Mailman Center for Child Development at UHealth – the University of Miami Health System. “From time spent studying to enrollment rates in pre-primary programs, everything had increased, and not surprisingly, in the past 40 years we also saw ADHD diagnoses double.” Share Share on Twitterlast_img read more

Read More →

Sleep suppresses brain rebalancing

first_imgThese findings raise the intriguing possibility that different forms of brain plasticity – for example those involved in memory consolidation and those involved in homeostatic rebalancing – must be temporally segregated from each other to prevent interference.The requirement that neurons carefully maintain an average firing rate, much like the thermostat in a house senses and maintains temperature, has long been suggested by computational work. Without homeostatic (“thermostat-like”) control of firing rates, models of neural networks cannot learn and drift into states of epilepsy-like saturation or complete quiescence.Much of the work in discovering and describing candidate mechanisms continues to be conducted at Brandeis. In 2013, the Turrigiano lab provided the first in vivo evidence for firing rate homeostasis in the mammalian brain. Lab members recorded the activity of individual neurons in the visual cortex of freely behaving rat pups for 8 hours per day across a nine-day period during which vision through one eye was occluded.The activity of neurons initially dropped, but over the next four days, firing rates came back to basal levels despite the visual occlusion. In essence, these experiments confirmed what had long been suspected – the activity of neurons in intact brains is indeed homeostatically governed.Due to the unique opportunity to study a fundamental mechanism of brain plasticity in an unrestrained animal, the lab has been probing the possibility of an intersection between an animal’s behavior and homeostatic plasticity. In order to truly evaluate possible circadian and behavioral influences on neuronal homeostasis, it was necessary to capture the entire 9-day experiment, rather than evaluate snapshots of each day.For this work, the Turrigiano Lab had to find creative computational solutions to recording many terabytes of data necessary to follow the activity of single neurons without interruption for more than 200 hours.Ultimately, these data revealed that the homeostatic regulation of neuronal activity in the cortex is gated by sleep and wake states. In a surprising and unpredicted twist, the homeostatic recovery of activity occurred almost exclusively during periods of activity and was inhibited during sleep. Prior predictions either assumed no role for behavioral state, or that sleeping would account for homeostasis.Finally, the lab established evidence for a causal role for active waking by artificially enhancing natural waking periods during the homeostatic rebound. When animals were kept awake, homeostatic plasticity was further enhanced.This finding opens doors onto a new field of understanding the behavioral, environmental, and circadian influences on homeostatic plasticity mechanisms in the brain. Some of the key questions that immediately beg to be answered include:What it is about sleep that precludes the expression of homeostatic plasticity?How is it possible that mechanisms requiring complex patterns of transcription, translation, trafficking, and modification can be modulated on the short timescales of behavioral state-transitions in rodents?And finally, how generalizable is this finding? As homeostasis is bidirectional, does a shift in the opposite direction similarly require wake or does the change in sign allow for new rules in expression? Share on Facebook Pinterest Share LinkedIncenter_img Share on Twitter Email Why humans and other animals sleep is one of the remaining deep mysteries of physiology. One prominent theory in neuroscience is that sleep is when the brain replays memories “offline” to better encode them (“memory consolidation”).A prominent and competing theory is that sleep is important for re-balancing activity in brain networks that have been perturbed during learning while awake. Such “rebalancing” of brain activity involves homeostatic plasticity mechanisms that were first discovered at Brandeis University, and have been thoroughly studied by a number of Brandeis labs including the lab of Brandeis professor of biology Gina Turrigiano.Now, a study from the lab just published in the journal Cell shows that these homeostatic mechanisms are indeed gated by sleep and wake, but in the opposite direction from that theorized previously: homeostatic brain rebalancing occurs exclusively when animals are awake, and is suppressed by sleep.last_img read more

Read More →

Fair or unfair? Facial cues influence how social exclusion is judged

first_imgLinkedIn Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Pinterest Sharecenter_img Whether uninvolved observers view social exclusion as morally justified or not can be very important for the victim as a possible intervention depends on that judgment. Making such a moral judgment, however, is often difficult and time consuming, which is why observers revert to relatively superficial indicators for guidance. One such indicator is the face of the excluded person.In several studies, the team of psychologists from the University of Basel presented different male faces to a total of 480 participants. The facial characteristics had previously been altered using a recently developed method for facial manipulation. The portraits were manipulated to appear warm or cold and competent or incompetent. The participants looked at each portrait for two seconds before spontaneously deciding how acceptable they thought it was for a group to exclude this person.More protection for warm and incompetent looking peopleIn all studies, participants found it more acceptable to socially exclude people whose faces looked cold and incompetent. However, exclusion was found least acceptable when those excluded looked warm and incompetent. A possible explanation for this could be that these people are often perceived as especially in need of protection and therefore excluding them from a group would be particularly cruel, says lead researcher Dr. Selma Rudert from the Center of Social Psychology at the University of Basel.Earlier studies have shown that humans have very clear-cut ideas of what a warm or cold person looks like. However, there is no evidence for any relation between facial features and personality traits. In other words: Although appearances are deceptive, individuals let them guide their judgment. The perceived warmth and competence in a person’s face play an especially important role in this judgment.Objectivity would be important“Our results suggest that the first impression a person makes can also influence moral judgments that would actually call for objectivity”, explains Rudert. These impressions can have far-reaching consequences for how people behave in social exclusion situations: “It is conceivable that a cold and incompetent looking victim of exclusion would get less support or, in the worst case, bystanders may even actively join the ostracizing group – all based on one glance at the face of the victim.” People are often excluded from social groups. As researchers from the University of Basel in Switzerland report in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, whether uninvolved observers find this acceptable or not may depend on the facial appearances of those excluded. The exclusion of cold and incompetent looking people is more likely to be accepted.Social exclusion – be it at school, work or among friends – is usually a painful experience for those affected. This behavior also often has a considerable effect on third-party observers: Bullying and ostracism with the aim to hurt the victims are seen as particularly unfair and morally unacceptable. However, in some cases, social exclusion is also perceived as justified. Groups are, for example, more likely to ostracize people who cause trouble or arguments in order to restore the harmony in their group.Quick moral judgment Emaillast_img read more

Read More →

Mouse studies offer new insights about cocaine’s effect on the brain

first_imgShare on Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn Share on Facebook Researchers have long used cocaine as a model to study how certain messages are transmitted in the brain. And Greengard’s group, which investigates the molecular basis of communication between nerve cells in the brains of mammals, has studied WAVE1, a protein involved in cell signaling, for more than a decade. But their PNAS study reveals something new about the way in which WAVE1 and dopamine interact.“We knew about the connection between WAVE1 and dopamine many years ago, but until now no one knew the mechanism of how cocaine stimulates WAVE1 and how WAVE1 regulates cocaine’s actions,” says Yong Kim, a Research Assistant Professor in Greengard’s lab and the senior author of the new study.No WAVE1, no rewardIn the new work, the team observed that WAVE1 became active in the brain of mice exposed to cocaine, and that this cocaine effect on WAVE1 could be prevented by blocking dopamine receptors. The research also provides new clues about how WAVE1 influences changes in the brain’s synapses– the junctions between nerves through which impulses pass–in response to cocaine exposure.Specifically, the investigators looked at changes in an area of the brain called the nucleus accumbens, a key component of the neural reward system that is known to play a critical part in addiction–and in which dopamine is heavily involved. When these synapses form, they allow the signals from dopamine and another neurotransmitter called glutamate to be transmitted.To investigate the interaction between WAVE1 and dopamine more specifically, the team looked at mice that had WAVE1 selectively removed in nerve cells. These nerve cells also contained one of the subtypes of dopamine receptor (called D1). They found a significant decrease in the preference for cocaine in these mice, compared with those producing normal WAVE1 levels. This suggested that the dopamine signals were not being transmitted.However, this effect was not seen when WAVE1 was removed from nerve cells containing a different dopamine receptor subtype (called D2). Those results suggest previously unknown details about how cocaine works.Addiction intervention“It’s well known that cocaine increases the signaling of dopamine in the brain,” Kim says. “Understanding more about the mechanism of cocaine action is providing new insight into the neurobiology of addiction. Our eventual goal is to use these findings to find a way to develop a drug to treat addiction.”However, Kim says there are limitations to the current work, largely because the mice were injected with cocaine by the researchers. Future studies will need a system in which the mice can self-administer the cocaine by pushing a lever and injecting themselves, a model that more closely mimics human addiction behavior.center_img Share Email Cocaine is one of the most addictive substances known to man, and for good reason: By acting on levels of the “feel-good” chemical dopamine, it produces a tremendous sensation of euphoria.Now the laboratory of Rockefeller University Professor and Nobel Laureate Paul Greengard has shown for the first time in mice how a protein called WAVE1 regulates the brain’s response to cocaine. Their discovery, which was published recently in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offers fundamental insights into the brain’s inner workings–and could lead to better interventions for treating addiction to cocaine and other drugs.Cocaine and the brainlast_img read more

Read More →

Study finds mu­sic and nat­ive lan­guage in­ter­act in the brain

first_imgThe brain’s auditory system can be shaped by exposure to different auditory environments, such as native language and musical training,A recent doctoral study by Caitlin Dawson from University of Helsinki focuses on interacting effects of native language patterns and musical experience on early auditory processing of basic sound features. Methods included electrophysiological brainstem recording as well as a set of behavioral auditory discrimination tasks.The auditory tasks were designed to find discrimination thresholds for intensity, frequency, and duration. A self-report questionnaire on musical sophistication was also used in the analyses. Share Pinterest Email Share on Twittercenter_img Share on Facebook LinkedIn “We found that Finnish speakers showed an advantage in duration processing in the brainstem, compared to German speakers. The reason for this may be that Finnish language includes long and short sounds that determine the meaning of words, which trains Finnish speakers’ brains to be very sensitive to the timing of sounds,” Dawson states.For Finnish speakers, musical expertise was associated with enhanced behavioral frequency discrimination. Mandarin speaking musicians showed enhanced behavioral discrimination in both frequency and duration. Mandarin Chinese language has tones which determine the meaning of words.“The perceptual effects of musical expertise were not reflected in brainstem responses in either Finnish or Mandarin speakers. This might be because language is an earlier and more essential skill than music, and native speakers are experts at their own language,” Dawson says.The results suggest that musical expertise does not enhance all auditory features equally for all language speakers; native language phonological patterns may modulate the enhancing effects of musical expertise on processing of specific features.last_img read more

Read More →