Mouse studies offer new insights about cocaine’s effect on the brain

first_imgShare on Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn Share on Facebook Researchers have long used cocaine as a model to study how certain messages are transmitted in the brain. And Greengard’s group, which investigates the molecular basis of communication between nerve cells in the brains of mammals, has studied WAVE1, a protein involved in cell signaling, for more than a decade. But their PNAS study reveals something new about the way in which WAVE1 and dopamine interact.“We knew about the connection between WAVE1 and dopamine many years ago, but until now no one knew the mechanism of how cocaine stimulates WAVE1 and how WAVE1 regulates cocaine’s actions,” says Yong Kim, a Research Assistant Professor in Greengard’s lab and the senior author of the new study.No WAVE1, no rewardIn the new work, the team observed that WAVE1 became active in the brain of mice exposed to cocaine, and that this cocaine effect on WAVE1 could be prevented by blocking dopamine receptors. The research also provides new clues about how WAVE1 influences changes in the brain’s synapses– the junctions between nerves through which impulses pass–in response to cocaine exposure.Specifically, the investigators looked at changes in an area of the brain called the nucleus accumbens, a key component of the neural reward system that is known to play a critical part in addiction–and in which dopamine is heavily involved. When these synapses form, they allow the signals from dopamine and another neurotransmitter called glutamate to be transmitted.To investigate the interaction between WAVE1 and dopamine more specifically, the team looked at mice that had WAVE1 selectively removed in nerve cells. These nerve cells also contained one of the subtypes of dopamine receptor (called D1). They found a significant decrease in the preference for cocaine in these mice, compared with those producing normal WAVE1 levels. This suggested that the dopamine signals were not being transmitted.However, this effect was not seen when WAVE1 was removed from nerve cells containing a different dopamine receptor subtype (called D2). Those results suggest previously unknown details about how cocaine works.Addiction intervention“It’s well known that cocaine increases the signaling of dopamine in the brain,” Kim says. “Understanding more about the mechanism of cocaine action is providing new insight into the neurobiology of addiction. Our eventual goal is to use these findings to find a way to develop a drug to treat addiction.”However, Kim says there are limitations to the current work, largely because the mice were injected with cocaine by the researchers. Future studies will need a system in which the mice can self-administer the cocaine by pushing a lever and injecting themselves, a model that more closely mimics human addiction behavior.center_img Share Email Cocaine is one of the most addictive substances known to man, and for good reason: By acting on levels of the “feel-good” chemical dopamine, it produces a tremendous sensation of euphoria.Now the laboratory of Rockefeller University Professor and Nobel Laureate Paul Greengard has shown for the first time in mice how a protein called WAVE1 regulates the brain’s response to cocaine. Their discovery, which was published recently in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offers fundamental insights into the brain’s inner workings–and could lead to better interventions for treating addiction to cocaine and other drugs.Cocaine and the brainlast_img read more

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Whom to know: Ian Hawksworth

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Remake, remodel: Manchester turns to refurbished offices

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

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Maximus delivers turnover above USD100 million, launches new website

first_imgTotal revenue of USD110.8 million grew by 134 0.000000rom USD47.3 million, driven by expansion in fleet capacity and consistent dispatch reliability, says the airline. FTK flown during the year, the most important indicator of air cargo operations, grew to 347,785 – up 156 0.000000rom 135,996 in 2007. Hours flown followed a similar pattern, up 137 0.000000rom 3,687 to 8,744. The airline is now on target to hit sales of USD130 million in 2009, according to president and CEO Fathi Hilal Buhazza.”We have achieved exceptional growth during 2008 and the predicted upward trend is even steeper for 2009 as we continue to secure additional short and medium term aircraft wet lease contracts,” he said. The airline also announced new interactive features on its website to enable users to calculate cargo logistics, including maximum payload, flight distances, aircraft range, and currency conversions. The Maximus aircraft fleet includes eight An-124-100s, an Airbus A300-600RF, an IL-76TD and a Lockheed Hercules L382G which are in operation across the Middle East, Europe, Africa and Asia.last_img read more

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GOP Convention: Doom and gloom at home, clamor for Trump

first_imgGOP Convention: Doom and gloom at home, clamor for Trump Published: July 18, 2016 10:43 PM EDT Updated: July 19, 2016 6:33 PM EDT Do you see a typo or an error? Let us know. SHARE CLEVELAND (AP) – Painting a bleak picture of America’s future, Republicans promised a new era of security with Donald Trump as president as they opened a four-day convention against the backdrop of an unsettling summer and deep party divisions.The doom-and-gloom message was expected to be offset later Monday night by the candidate’s wife, Melania Trump, who was taking a rare turn in the political spotlight to show a kinder, gentler side of her brash husband. In an unusual step for a candidate, Trump announced he would come to Cleveland and introduce her.Mrs. Trump was the first of several family members and friends who will take the stage in Cleveland during the convention that officially kicks of the businessman’s general election battle with Democrat Hillary Clinton. But many of the party’s past and future stars are glaringly missing from the lineup, underscoring the concerns GOP leaders have with closely aligning themselves with Trump.Republican divisions erupted briefly on the convention floor Monday afternoon after party officials adopted rules by a shouted voice vote. Anti-Trump forces seeking to derail his nomination responded with loud and angry chants, though they were quickly quieted and there were no lingering signs of the protests as delegates returned to the cavernous convention hall for the evening program.Trump hoped the chaos would be little more than a footnote. Despite persistent party divisions, his campaign is confident Republicans will come together behind their shared disdain for Clinton.The theme of the opening night was “Make America Safe Again” and a parade of speakers told emotional stories about loved ones killed while serving in the military or at the hands of people in the United States illegally.Republicans also highlighted at length the deadly 2012 attacks on Americans in Benghazi, Libya, while Clinton was serving as secretary of state. The mother of one of the victims choked back tears as she personally blamed Clinton for her son’s death and giving a false explanation for the attack.“If Hilary Clinton can’t give us the truth, why should we give her the presidency,” Pat Smith said.The convention comes amid a wrenching period of violence and unrest, both in the United States and around the world. In a matter of weeks, Americans have seen deadly police shootings, a shocking ambush of police in Texas and escalating racial tensions, not to mention a failed coup in Turkey and gruesome Bastille Day attack in Nice, France. Three police officers were killed in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, on the eve of the convention’s opening day.Convention speakers relentlessly cast the troubling times as a result of ineffective leadership by President Barack Obama and Clinton, who spent four years in his administration.“Hillary Clinton cannot be trusted. Her judgment and character are not suited to be sitting in the most powerful office in the world,” said Sen. Joni Ernst, R-Iowa, according to excerpts of her speech released in advance.Clinton, during remarks Monday at the NAACP’s annual convention, said there was no justification for directing violence at law enforcement.“As president, I will bring the full weight of the law to bear in making sure those who kill police officers are brought to justice,” she said.Trump has been vague about how he would put the nation on a different course, offering virtually no details of his policy prescriptions despite repeated vows to be tough.Campaign chairman Paul Manafort said Trump would “eventually” outline policy specifics but not at the convention. However, Trump said in a Monday night interview with Fox News that his convention speech Thursday would discuss a “major, major” tax cut, immigration, getting rid of burdensome regulations and taking care of veterans.While Trump has been a highly unorthodox candidate, his convention opened in a traditional manner. Sign-waving delegates decked out in patriotic colors filled the arena, leaping to their feet in frequent bursts of applause.Yet the line-up of speakers and no-shows for the four-night convention was a visual representation of Trump’s struggles to unify Republicans. From the party’s former presidents to the host state governor, many leaders were staying away from the convention stage, or Cleveland altogether, wary of being linked to a man whose proposals and temperament have sparked an identity crisis within the GOP.That left Trump with an eclectic array of validators, including Scott Baio and Willie Robertson, star of “Duck Dynasty,” who took the stage with an American flag bandanna wrapped around his head.“No matter who you are, Donald Trump will have your back,” Robertson said as he opened the evening program.Trump’s team insists that by the end of the week, Republicans will plunge into the general election campaign united in their mission to defeat Clinton. But campaign officials undermined their own effort Monday by picking a fight with Ohio Gov. John Kasich, who is not attending the convention and has yet to endorse Trump.”Manafort, in remarks to reporters at a Bloomberg breakfast, called Kasich “petulant” and said the governor was “embarrassing” his party in his home state.Even some of those participating in the convention seemed to be avoiding their party’s nominee. When House Speaker Paul Ryan spoke to Wisconsin delegates Monday morning, he made no mention of Trump in his remarks.Ryan, asked at a later event whether Trump was really a conservative, said: “Define conservative; he’s not my kind of conservative.”last_img read more

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World rail market June 2014

first_imgChina: CSR Sifang has awarded Paul Wurth Group a contract to automate a bogie assembly line in Qingdao to increase productivity to 10 bogies per shift Poland: Ernst & Young has been retained to advise on options for restructuring Polish regional train operator Przewozy Regionalne. Preliminary conclusions are expected in September. UK: Mechan is to supply two traversers for Hitachi Rail Europe’s Newton Aycliffe rolling stock plant. USA: West Virginia University has awarded Thales a contract to modernise its 7 km guided personal rapid transit network in Morgantown, supplying new SelTrac CBTC, fare collection and passenger information systems. New York MTA has selected Masabi to provide mobile ticketing for the Metro-North Railroad and Long Island Rail Road, and Virginia Railway Express is to use mobile ticketing developed by Bytemark and GlobeSherpa.last_img read more

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The Peanut Butter Falcon review

first_imgIf horror isn’t your thing during October, then you really can’t get any better than this gloriously infectious and genuinely heart-warming tale. Writer/directors Tyler Nilson and Michael Schwartz deliver such a sweet ode to pursuing your dreams that you’ll leave the cinema in a wonderful mood. This Huck Finn-styled tale is a true feel-good gem, and one that we desperately need in these harsh, cynical times. Zak (a scene-stealing Zack Gottsagen) runs away from his care home to make his dream of becoming a professional wrestler a reality. Along the way he meets Tyler (Shia LaBeouf), out of work and on the run from some locals he has clashed with, led by local business owner Duncan (John Hawkes). Tyler strikes up an unlikely friendship with Zak and agrees to accompany him to a wrestling school that Zak has always wanted to go to, run by famed wrestler ‘The Salt Water Redneck’ (Thomas Haden Church). But Eleanor (Dakota Johnson), the care-worker assigned to Zak, is on their trail and has to get him back home before the authorities find out he’s missing. The film has a relevant central message of chasing your dreams and delivers this with a warm, affecting ode to a simpler time. It’s shot beautifully, with the environment playing an equal part to the ambience of the narrative. The location shoots lend authenticity to the story and helps cultivate a really welcoming and warm movie-going experience that will stay with you for long after the end credits roll.Credit: Signature EntertainmentThe film hinges on the chemistry between Zack Gottsagen and Shia LaBeouf, with the two actors creating some real magic in this film. Everything about their relationship feels genuine and utterly believable. LaBeouf has always been a sensational actor, and he elevates the film with a stunning performance of nuance and heart, and alongside Gottsagen, who himself delivers one of the best debut performances I’ve ever seen, makes for a formidable leading pair. The film is blessed with some sensational supporting turns too. Dakota Johnson hands in her best performance to date as the kindly Eleanor, who is desperately looking to track down Zak. Her chemistry with Shia LaBeouf is also really well played – their back-and-forth being a real highlight of the film. Screen icon Bruce Dern is hilarious as Carl, a resident of Zak’s care home who helps him escape. Jon Bernthal, John Hawkes, Wayne Dehartand and Yelawolf also lend their talents and help craft a genuinely engaging story that keeps you invested throughout.Credit: Signature EntertainmentWrestling fans will revel in the movie too, with ring legends Jake the Snake Roberts and Mick Foley making great cameo appearances. Thomas Haden Church, whom you can always rely on to steal a scene, does just that as ‘The Salt Water Redneck’. Channelling old wrestling personas from the late 80s and early 90s, his VHS promos (that Zak religiously watches) are a perfect ode to a bygone era of professional wrestling. He’s only onscreen for a short while but Church easily hands in one of the best supporting turns of 2019. As great as the cast are, the relentless work of writer/directors Tyler Nilson and Michael Schwartz deserves huge praise here too. They have created a truly memorable cinematic experience and have done it the hard way. Deciding to make a film for their friend Zack, and to showcase his abilities as an actor, they took matters into their own hands and worked tirelessly to get this movie made. But more than just a gesture of good-will, they have genuinely made a film to be proud of – one that balances drama and emotion expertly, and one that evokes a classic, timeless beauty. The Peanut Butter Falcon is one of those films that will be revisited for years to come.Credit: Signature EntertainmentDestined to thaw out even the coldest of hearts, The Peanut Butter Falcon wears its heart proudly on its sleeve and delivers one of the finest films you’ll see this year. A sweet, well-intentioned and positive movie that actively promotes the human spirit, it’s easy to see why this has become a sensation on the film festival circuit. It’s not often that you find something as life-affirming and fresh as The Peanut Butter Falcon. Go and see it – you won’t regret it for one second. Cast: Shia LeBeouf, Zack Gottsagen, Dakota Johnson, Thomas Haden Church, Bruce Dern, John Hawkes, Jon Bernthal, Jake Roberts, Mick Foley, Yelawolf Director: Tyler Nilson, Michael Schwartz Writer: Tyler Nilson, Michael Schwartz Certificate: 12A Duration: 97mins Released by: Signature Entertainment Release date: 18th October 2019last_img read more

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REFUSE SITE BATTERY RAIDERS ‘NEED CHARGING’

first_imgAddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInPolice Scotland is investigating a break-in to the Refuse Amenity Site at Muirhead, Lockerbie which happened sometime overnight Monday 31 October and Tuesday 1 November 2016. Approximately 45 car batteries with a value of around £350 were taken in the raid.Constable Terry Robertson at Lockerbie said “clearly a vehicle must have been used in this crime and we are asking for the help of the public who may have used the road past the site that evening to get in touch with us at Lockerbie if they saw anything suspicious. In particular we want to hear about any vehicles which may have been seen in the area over this period. Callers can call us at Lockerbie through the 101 number.”last_img read more

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Keysight Technologies LTE Conformance Testing Solution Selected by SGS

first_imgKeysight Technologies announced that SGS, the leading global inspection, verification, testing and certification company, has selected the Keysight T4010S LTE RF conformance test platform for use in its San Diego, California test lab. SGS will use the platform to perform certification services in the wireless communications industry. SGS also uses Keysight’s LTE platforms in its Asia labs, including radio resource management (RRM) and protocol, for user equipment (UE) certification and for cooperative platform validation with Keysight.The Keysight T4010S is one of the most compact and efficient test tool available on the market today. The test platform covers conformance testing for FDD and TDD, as well as LTE device acceptance test plans as used by several U.S. network operators. LTE Advanced features, such as Release 10 Carrier Aggregation, are also available on the T4010S. It can handle multiple test suites – from conformance testing to verifying network operator requirements. The system also helps minimize testing time for customers improving efficiency.Engineers can use the T4010S test platform for R&D design verification (DV) with the same hardware as used in the conformance testing version. The T4010S DV software mode has the ability to execute test cases with different parameters other than those required by 3GPP. The platform also allows testing for all LTE frequency bands at no additional cost.last_img read more

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Tiny Embedded Antenna for Dual-Band Wi-Fi Applications

first_imgAntenova has introduced a new ultra-compact dual-band Wi-Fi antenna to its range of tiny embedded antennas. The antenna, named Minuta, is a ceramic antenna measuring 1.0mm x 0.5mm x 0.5mm making it one of the smallest embedded antennas available today.Antenova has developed this antenna for the newer 4.9-5.9 GHz frequency which is less cluttered than 2.4-2.5 GHz and gives enhanced performance with less interference. The Minuta (SRC2W006) operates at 2.4-2.5 GHz and 4.9-5.9 GHz and matches the Wi-Fi 802.11a/h/j/n/p/ac standards.It offers designers some useful flexibility in the layout of a PCB, as it does not need a position on a corner, and can be placed along one of the long edges of a board. The antenna is ideal for access points and portable devices, and in particular for wearable technology and body-worn devices because it is less susceptible to de-tune when used close to the human body.Click here for detailed specifications of the Minuta antenna.Click here to view Antenova’s complete antenna portfolio.last_img read more

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