Barca, Real share spoils in rare goalless Clasico

first_imgReal Madrid outplayed Barcelona for large parts of Wednesday’s La Liga clash but were unable to make their dominance count and the ‘Clasico’ ended goalless to leave the Catalans top of the standings on goal difference.Both sides had shots cleared off the line and Real’s Gareth Bale did put the ball in the net after the interval but his strike was narrowly ruled out for offside and the fixture ended scoreless for the first time since November, 2002.The draw left Barca top on 36 points after 17 games, with Real also on 36, five clear of third-placed Sevilla.The game was rescheduled from Oct. 26 due to the political turmoil that gripped Catalonia after separatist leaders were given lengthy jail sentences two months ago and was played amid a protest in favour of independence near the stadium.Loud chants of “independence” and “freedom” greeted kick-off while many supporters held up flags reading “Spain Sit and Talk” distributed by protest organisers in a call for dialogue between the central government and Catalonia.Local police reported confrontations between officers and protesters outside the ground while play was briefly stopped in the second half when a number of beach balls were thrown on to the pitch amid more chants for freedom for the jailed leaders.The action on the pitch did not quite live up to the billing or the tense atmosphere in the stands as Barca failed to get going throughout the game and Real bossed the first half.Zinedine Zidane’s side fired 12 shots at the hosts’ goal before the interval, coming closest with a Casemiro header which Gerard Pique scrambled off the goalline, while they also had two penalty appeals waved away for challenges on Raphael Varane.Barca looked short of ideas, with Lionel Messi being their only source of inspiration.The Argentine could have broken the deadlock in the first half but Real captain Sergio Ramos slid to the floor to block his goal-bound shot.Messi later teed up Jordi Alba with a scooped pass but the defender fired just wide, while Barca’s all-time top scorer was uncharacteristically sloppy at times and miscontrolled a clear opportunity to strike at goal in the second half.last_img read more

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Rodgers plays down Vardy injury fears

first_imgLeicester boss Brendan Rodgers has allayed fears over striker Jamie Vardy’s injury sustained in City’s 4-1 thumping of West Ham at the King Power Stadium.Leading 1-0 on the back of Harvey Barnes’ 23rd-minute tap-in and after losing midfielder Nampalys Mendy to a knee injury just after the half-hour, Vardy’s hoofed clearance resulted in him pulling up and clutching the top of his left thigh.Although the Foxes’ leading goalscorer attempted to carry on after treatment, the 33-year-old soon crumpled back to the ground and was replaced by Kelechi Iheanacho.Vardy at least watched the second half from the bench, with Rodgers delivering a positive prognosis.“It wasn’t his hamstring, so that’s good news for us,” said Rodgers.“He just felt a twinge in his glute, so we will wait and see on that one in the next day or so, but thankfully his hamstring is fine, and we’ll assess things over the next couple of days.”Despite the injury blows, Rodgers’ side returned to winning ways with an emphatic victory to maintain their stranglehold on third place in the Premier League, and with it keep one eye on a Champions League place for next season.After losing Vardy, Ricardo doubled City’s lead on the stroke of half-time with a sumptuous strike and, although captain Mark Noble pulled one back from the penalty spot early in the second half, a brace from Ayoze Perez in the final 10 minutes wrapped up a deserved win to erase memories of recent back-to-back defeats to Southampton and Leicester.The result also proved City can operate without Vardy.Rodgers added: “He’s a fantastic player and very, very important for us, but you are never going to succeed or do well if you just rely totally on one player.“Of course, when you have a player of his quality, he is always going to be a miss, so it’s particularly important to have players who can come into a game and you don’t change so much of your rhythm.“Kelechi came in and he was very, very good. He wants to run in behind, he was powerful, his touch was good, he works ever so hard, and he always looks like he can create and score goals. I thought he came in and did very well.“Overall, I thought the performance was very, very good. From the first whistle we played with a high tempo, the speed in our game was good, the creativity was good. We thoroughly deserved it, so really pleased.”For David Moyes, there were no complaints as his team were distinctly second best throughout, with only goal difference separating the Hammers from a place in the bottom three.Moyes said: “I’m extremely disappointed.“The first half was really poor. I was hoping to have scraped through to half-time at 1-0 and then done something about it.“We did improve, we rallied and the introduction of Michail Antonio (at the interval) helped us.“But our problems were more to do with our defending in the second half as we started to be too open, we were chasing and being picked off easy. I would have preferred for us to have bided our time and pick them off.“We also gave up opportunities tonight. In the main we’ve not been giving up too many opportunities.“But we have to be honest, Leicester City were far better, played better and they deserved it, we didn’t, on that performance.”last_img read more

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Wimbledon 2017 | Nadal three wins from away from world number 1

first_img RETURN GAME LONDON (AP): Rafael Nadal is on his way to the fourth round at Wimbledon and he’s three matches away from taking over as the number-one player in the world. Nadal beat Karen Khachanov of Russia 6-1, 6-4, 7-6 (3) on Friday on Centre Court. If he reaches the final at the All England Club, the two-time Wimbledon champion will take over from Andy Murray as the top-ranked player in the world. “First set and a half, I think, was very, very well. Very happy (with) the way that I played,” Nadal said in a television interview after walking off the court. “Then it was a little bit tougher. I think I stopped a little bit with the legs and he started to hit stronger, but he’s still a tough opponent and it’s impossible to win easy.” Nadal was playing in front of several sports stars seated in the Royal Box. One of them was Sergio Garcia, the Spanish golfer who was wearing his green Masters jacket. “He’s having an amazing season, especially with that victory, amazing victory in the Masters,” Nadal said. “So, just great to see him, and thanks for coming.” Nadal is having a pretty good season, too. He reached the Australian Open final, losing to Roger Federer, and won the French Open. The title at Roland Garros was his 10th at the clay-court major. On Monday, Nadal will face Gilles Muller in the fourth round. Muller beat Nadal at the All England Club in 2005, but the Spaniard got one back in 2011. That was the last time Nadal got past the fourth round at Wimbledon, reaching the final, but losing to Novak Djokovic. “He’s a specialist on grass,” Nadal said of M¸ller. “Probably his best surface, without a doubt.” Murray was next on Centre Court against Fabio Fognini. Earlier Friday, Victoria Azarenka extended her Grand Slam comeback into the second week. The former number-one from Belarus, who gave birth to her first child in December, advanced to the fourth round by beating Heather Watson 3-6, 6-1, 6-4 on Centre Court. Azarenka also lost the first set in her opening match, but that was only her third match since her return. Yesterday’s match was her fifth. “These are the matches that you’re looking for,” Azarenka said. “Try to find a way when not everything goes great.” The two-time Grand Slam champion will next face Simona Halep on Monday in the fourth round. The second-seeded Romanian beat Peng Shuai 6-4, 7-6 (7). Venus Williams, a five-time Wimbledon champion, beat Naomi Osaka 7-6 (3), 6-4 and will next face 27th-seeded Ana Konjuh. Fourth-seeded Elina Svitolina, sixth-seeded Johanna Konta, 21st-seeded Caroline Garcia and French Open champion Jelena Ostapenko also reached the fourth round. For the men, ninth-seeded Kei Nishikori was eliminated. The 2014 US Open finalist lost to Roberto Bautista Agut 6-4, 7-6 (3), 3-6, 6-3. “I couldn’t maintain my level high enough,” Nishikori said. “He served well every set. Was really tough time (on) my return game.” Marin Cilic, the man who beat Nishikori in that US Open final, advanced to the third round by beating Steve Johnson 6-4, 7-6 (3), 6-4. The seventh-seeded Croat will next face Bautista Agut on Monday.last_img read more

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Bank on Subbie in Race Three

first_imgMAKHI, who was forced off the track for close to 19 months because of lameness, will be treated with Lasix for his seventh start tomorrow and is the one to be on in the opening event over 1400 metres. The four-year-old returned in a 1500-metre race last November 24 and showed up briefly before weakening behind winner SILVA CRASS, GENERAL MUBARAAK and third-place MOVIESTAR. Before his long absence, MAKHI had displayed lots of promise while matching strides with horses such as BRUCE WAYNE who are now running in overnight allowance company. On April 8, 2017, he was four lengths behind Cruise Lava in a 2000-metre race, clocking 2:12.1 for the distance. Before that, on March 18 of the same year, he was fourth by nine lengths to BRUCE WAYNE, SUBBIE, and DEAL MARKER. All three are now competing against far superior horses to the ones MAKHI will face tomorrow. On his best form MAKHI should therefore blow away tomorrow’s field and connections will be hoping that the raceday medication will help him run his best race in almost two years. GENERAL MUBARAAK is the obvious favourite, on current form, in this opening event of the Sunrise-Six but he cannot be trusted, even at 53kg. He has proved to be very expensive to follow and is always finding one going better in the final stages of his races. LAMBANA stayed on well in a 1500-metre race on January 5 and appears ready to shed the maiden tag in the second race. The four-year-old gelding finished second to POLLY FLYER after being close to the pace for much of the race. He has gone up 3kg in the weights but is very fit and will be travelling 200 metres more. The Winston Morris-trained SUBBIE is a banker in Race Three, a 1400-metre race for $450,000 claimers. The five-year-old has contested the distance three times in his past four starts clocking under 1:28.0 each time. He is actually down a level for tomorrow’s race after placing third by seven lengths to WINTER IS COMING in a $550,000 claiming race on October 31 last year. Veteran jockey Dane Nelson has the ride. Bottom of the barrel horses will face the starter in the fourth, a 400m race for $120,000 claimers. Thirteen will run and as is customary in theses race races a lot of entries have physical problems and are very short runners. It’s best to stick with horses who have done well over the distance in the past and BEAST has all the credentials. The nine-year-old was burdened with 57.5kg against $180,000 claimers over 1000-metre straight last December 12 and was not disgraced in placing fourth by four lengths to SONG ON TRACK. He has dropped down to 50kg and will be facing lesser rivals and should not be beaten. The last time BEAST was this light in this claiming group, and over this distance, he won going away by three lengths. MY MOM JUSS is the choice for Race Five while CAT’S RIGGER is the selection in the sixth. 1. MAKHI 2. LAMBANA 3. SUBBIE 4. BEAST 5. MY MOM JUSS 6. CAT’S RIGGER SUNRISE-SIX SELECTIONSlast_img read more

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Top team NLEX rises from 26 down, stuns Magnolia

first_imgPBA IMAGESANTIPOLO — Jericho Cruz scored the game-winning tip to complete an 86-85 comeback victory by NLEX over Magnolia in the PBA Governors’ Cup Sunday night at Ynares Center here.  Cruz converted the putback off a missed free throw by Kiefer Ravena with only a second left as the Road Warriors remained at the helm with an 8-1 record.ADVERTISEMENT View comments The Hotshots got 24 points from Paul Lee, who tried to keep his squad ahead down the stretch.Ian Sangalang tossed in 19 points, while Romeo Travis had 13 and Mark Barroca chipped in 10 for Magnolia, which slid to No. 6 with a 5-5 record.“It was really a fantastic game. I’ve been coaching for so long but games like this one are rare,” added Guiao.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next The 29-year-old Cruz finished with 13 points, including a 3-pointer that gave NLEX its first lead, 79-76, with 3:02 left after trailing by as many as 26. The triple capped a blistering 22-5 run to start by the Road Warriors to open the payoff period.“We need tests like this to toughen our character. We had a bad first half but the guys made up for it,” coach Yeng Guiao told reporters after that contest where trailed by as many as 26 points.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSAndray Blatche has high praise for teammate Kai SottoSPORTSBig differenceSPORTSAlmazan status stays uncertain ahead of Game 4“I was ready to give up. I told the staff at the half that [perhaps] a loss would do us good. But the boys never gave up,” he added as NLEX secured a playoff bonus.Import Manny Harris collected 22 points, nine rebounds and 10 assists while JR Quiñahan added 14 points for the Road Warriors, who stretched their winning streak to five games. MOST READ ‘People evacuated on their own’ 400 evacuees from Taal eruption take refuge in Mt. Banahaw PH sweeps way to title in Jakarta 3×3 tiltcenter_img Lava gushes out of Taal Volcano as villagers flee Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:05Poor visibility, nakaapekto sa maraming lugar sa Batangas03:028,000 pulis sa Region 4-A, tuloy ang trabaho03:57Phivolcs, nahihirapan sa komunikasyon sa Taal01:04Sold-out: Stores run out of face masks after Taal spews ash01:45Iran police shoot at those protesting plane shootdown01:54MMDA deploys rescue team to Batangas following Taal eruption Taal Volcano’s lava fountain weakens, but Phivolcs says it’s not sign of slowing down Phivolcs: Cloud seeding in ashfall affected areas needs study 2 village execs nabbed in Bohol buy-bust DSWD Bicol donates P1.5M worth of food packs for Taal eruption evacuees Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. No need to wear face masks in Metro Manila, says scientistlast_img read more

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Amazing Premier League club stats you need to know from the last round of games

first_img 10 2. West Ham have now gone 11 games unbeaten at home in the Premier League, their longest run since 1998, which was 14 matches long. 10 10 4. Mesut Ozil registered his lowest ever pass accuracy (69%) for Arsenal in the Premier League against Manchester United. 10 7. Leicester City have not conceded a goal at home in 478 minutes of football. 10 10 It seems every passing weekend sees milestones met and records broken in English football.This time, in the League Cup final and the Premier League numerous statistics stood out from the crowd as superstars and managers showed their best, and worst, sides.Whether it be goals, passes, tackles or even players ages, there is always something numerical going on.So what were the vital statistics from the latest round of action? Click the right arrow for some of the best facts and figures… 6. Louis van Gaal has given 23 players their Manchester United debuts. 10 10. No player has been directly involved in more Premier League goals in 2016 than Diego Costa (9) – click the right arrow above for another nine fascinating stats 1. Theo Walcott didn’t have a single shot on goal against Manchester United. 9. No Watford player made more passes than Heurelho Gomes’ 37 against Bournemouth. 8. Jurgen Klopp has now lost a cup final in four successive seasons. 5. Manchester United have won back-to-back home games for the first time since September. 3. Jamie Vardy and Riyad Mahrez have scored more goals between them (33) than Norwich City have in total (30). 10 10 10last_img read more

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Hike in Tuition and Fees Coming to WCU

first_imgThe Western Carolina University Board of Trustees endorsed a schedule of tuition and fees for the 2016-17 academic year that includes a 3 percent increase in tuition for students from North Carolina previously approved by the board last December.The proposal, unanimously approved by the board at its regular quarterly meeting Friday, Dec. 4, would mean a $114 annual increase in tuition for in-state undergraduate students.During last December’s board meeting, the trustees approved a 3 percent increase in tuition for in-state students for 2015-16 and a subsequent increase of 3 percent for 2016-17, meeting instructions from the University of North Carolina Board Of Governors that all UNC campuses submit tuition and fee proposals covering those two academic years.The proposed schedule of tuition and fees must be approved by the Board of Governors and the General Assembly to become effective.Funds generated by the tuition increase would be used to add additional classes in the high-demand, high-growth areas of chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and other STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) programs; address salary issues as part of the university’s efforts to retain faculty and staff; ;and provide support for student services and programming.Even with the increase in costs for the coming year, WCU will remain among the least-expensive institutions of higher education in the state.In addition to changes in tuition, the board approved only one modification to mandatory student fees — a $10 increase in the book rental fee, from $280 per academic year to $290, to help meet the rising costs of textbooks and educational materials. All other mandatory student fees remain unchanged for 2016-17.Phil Drake, chair of the trustees’ finance and audit committee, presented the schedule of tuition and fees to the full board for approval following an afternoon of open discussion and committee meetings Thursday, Dec. 3.The board approved increases in residence hall room rates ranging from 2.5 percent to 14.50 percent to meet rising utility costs, prepare for adding housing capacity and continue renovations of existing facilities.In addition, the trustees set rates for rooms in a mixed-used facility currently under construction. A blend of residential, commercial and dining space, the new facility replaces structures damaged by fire in November 2013 and will be named Noble Hall in honor of the Noble Nine, the group of nine trustees from the late 1800s who were instrumental in the development of the school that evolved into WCU. The trustees approved naming of the hall during their November planning retreat.The board also approved increases of approximately 4 percent in the cost of student meal plans to help meet the rising costs of food and food service personnel, and approved postponement for one year of previously approved increases in campus parking fees.The action by the trustees comes after a series of meetings by a campus tuition and fee committee, including three open campus discussions, several information sessions sponsored by the Student Government Association, and an online survey that received 757 responses.With the proposed changes approved by the board, WCU’s average total cost of attendance in 2016-17, including standard residence hall accommodations and the most-popular meal plan, would be $15,391 per year (fall and spring semester) for a typical N.C. undergraduate student, a 5.7 percent increase over current year costs.last_img read more

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Stratford boys basketball holds off Pittsville

first_imgFecker tops Tigers with 10 pointsBy Paul LeckerSports ReporterSTRATFORD — The Stratford boys basketball team jumped out to a 10-point lead by halftime then held off a late charge to beat Pittsville 48-46 in a Marawood Conference South Division game Tuesday night at Stratford High School.Stratford led 23-13 at halftime and held on at the end for the victory. Both teams are now 4-2 overall and 1-1 in the Marawood South.Stratford shot 50 percent (17 of 34) from the floor and hit five 3-pointers in the victory. Brenden Fecker led a balanced scoring attack with 10 points for the Tigers. Vaughn Breit and Jacob Danen each added nine points.Aidan Masanz led Pittsville with 21 points.Stratford is off until Jan. 3 when it plays a nonconference game at Edgar.(Hub City Times Sports Reporter Paul Lecker is also the publisher of MarshfieldAreaSports.com.)Tigers 48, Panthers 46Pittsville 13 33 – 46Stratford 23 25 – 48PITTSVILLE (46): Brett Peters 0-4 0-0 0, Donovan Grossman 1-5 0-0 2, Trevor Winterback 0-1 0-0 0, Bailey Herkert 2-5 4-4 9, Aidan Masanz 5-7 9-11 21, Matthew Carlson 5-8 2-4 12, Luke Denniston 1-4 0-0 2, Trevor Gardner 0-2 0-0 0. FG: 14-36. FT: 15-19. 3-pointers: 3-11 (Masanz 2-3, Herkert 1-2, Peters 0-3, Denniston 0-3). Rebounds: 18 (Masanz 5, Carlson 5). Record: 4-2, 1-1 Marawood South.STRATFORD (48): Brenden Fecker 2-9 5-6 10, Cole Hoffmann 1-4 0-0 3, Okley Wrensch 0-0 0-0 0, Paul Huther 3-4 2-2 8, Trent Heckel 2-3 0-0 6, Andrew Bargender 0-0 0-0 0, Vaughn Breit 4-5 1-3 9, Lance Heidmann 1-1 0-0 3, Jacob Danen 4-8 1-2 9. FG: 17-34. FT: 9-13. 3-pointers: 5-12 (Heckel 2-3, Heidmann 1-1, Hoffmann 1-3, Fecker 1-5). Rebounds: 17 (Danen 6). Record: 4-2, 1-1 Marawood South.last_img read more

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Make saving the planet a habit

first_imgCountless organisations around the globe are sharing tips on how to save the planet on World Environment Day on 5 June. But they will also encourage people to turn these tips into daily habits. Organisations and individuals all over the globe encourage the public to help the planet by implementing small things in their lives. (Images: Nature Forever) • Cape shipwreck adds another chapter to slave trade story • SKA will boost Africa’s presence in science fields • The Conversation goes live in Africa • A need for roots drives passion for genealogy • Done right, urbanisation can boost living standards in Africa Melissa JavanTurning off your computers at night and drying your clothes on a washing line are just a few ways of saving the planet. And these are the kinds of methods that will be promoted on Friday, 5 June, when people all over the globe celebrate World Environmental Day (WED).The Environmental Association for Universities and Colleges [EAUC] refers to WED as “the biggest day for environmental action and mobilisation”.EAUC invited the public to use the Twitter hashtag #WED2015 to share what they will be doing for this day. “Last year’s WED received 6 437 pledges and over 3 000 activities were registered online, can we go further in 2015?” it is said on its website.“This global alliance [WED] will contribute extensively to global developments such as the Paris COP21 taking place in December 2015,” said EAUC.“The theme for this year’s WED is ‘Seven Billion Dreams. One Planet. Consume with Care’. With individuals consuming far more natural resources than what the planet can sustainably supply, we are at the tipping point of irreversible and destructive change.”Here are some of the tweets with this hashtag, as well as #WorldEnvironmentalDay:I’m going! #WorldEnvironmentDay – Friday 5 June pic.twitter.com/3tjpnMKkPP — Richard McLellan (@RichardMcLellan) June 4, 2015Seven Billion dreams,oneplanet ,lets consume our envrionmentwith care #WorldEnvironmentday pic.twitter.com/XumLPbDkma — JoburgParksZoo(@JoburgParksZoo) June 4, 2015Good to see people planting more trees and plants all over the world to celebrate #WorldEnvironmentDay. Every bit counts. #sustainability — Judy Sebastian (@foodsheblogged) June 4, 2015Celebrations in South AfricaCommunity development NGO Sozo Foundation will host a Healthy Eating Workshop to teach home gardeners in Vrygrond, Cape Town, to cook a meal without using oil and to incorporate herbs and spices for the improvement of their well-being.Waste management company, Dolphin Coast Landfill Management will be in Stanger, KwaZulu Natal, to host an outreach programme for the local community. Facilitators at the event will teach children about preserving the environment by implementing the 3 R’s: reduce, reuse and recycle.Tips to save the planetWebsites like 50 Ways to Help the Planet provide tips on how we can do our part to save the planet. These include simple actions such as using one less paper napkin when eating out, hanging clothes out to dry instead of putting them in the tumble dryer and using matches instead of lighters. Such tips can quickly become habits in our daily lives.The online environmental entrepreneur site, Ecopreneurist gave a list of 10 ways on how businesses can make themselves “greener”. Here are some of its ideas:Printing Less Stuff equals Using Less PaperGo Digital with Your DocumentsTurn off everything you possibly can before you leave the office each day.Educate yourself on how to make your business more sustainableWatch and learn practical solutions to save the planet:last_img read more

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Lack of sleep puts you at higher risk for colds, first experimental study finds

first_imgOf the 164 participants, 124 received the actual virus instead of the control, and 48 of them got sick. By checking the sleep duration of the sick participants, researchers report in the current issue of SLEEP that individuals who slept fewer than 5 hours a night were 4.5 times more likely to get sick than those who slept 7 hours or more. Those who slept 5 to 6 hours were 4.2 times more likely to get sick, but those who slept 6 to 7 hours per night were at no greater risk of catching the cold than those who slept 7 hours or more, suggesting that there’s a sleep threshold for potent immune defense.“Sleep often takes a back seat to other health behaviors like nutrition and exercise,” Prather says. “I think this [experiment] provides some really clear evidence for those people who get less than 5 or 6 hours of sleep—there really is a clear biological cost.” Moms and sleep researchers alike have stressed the importance of solid shuteye for years, especially when it comes to fighting off the common cold. Their stance is a sensible one—skimping on sleep weakens the body’s natural defense system, leaving it more vulnerable to viruses. But the connection relied largely on self-reported, subjective surveys—until now. For the first time, a team of scientists reports that they have locked down the link experimentally, showing that sleep-deprived individuals are more than four times more likely to catch a cold than those who are well-rested.“It’s very nice to see an experiment looking at sleep as an important regulator for specific antiviral immune responses,” says Michael Irwin, a psychoneuroimmunologist at University of California (UC), Los Angeles, who is not involved with the study. “In this particular case, there’s a hard clinical outcome showing [sleep deprivation] and susceptibility to the common cold.”In a carefully controlled two-part experiment, scientists began by collecting nightly sleep data on 164 healthy individuals for 1 week. Participants were asked to record the times at which they went to bed and woke up. They also wore small watchlike devices that use a technique called wrist actigraphy to monitor movement (much like a Fitbit tracks activity) while they slept. Aric Prather, lead author of the study and a sleep researcher at UC San Francisco, says that he and his colleagues associate the wrist actigraphy data with being awake—if during a reported sleep period, the wrist band records movement, they take that as an indication of wakefulness, and subtract the time spent moving from the hours asleep.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Then came part two: the cold infections. Scientists quarantined participants in a hotel and gave them nose drops containing rhinovirus—the virus responsible for the common cold. They then closed off the hotel floor for 5 days, letting the hosts’ immune system do the rest. To ensure the most accurate results, researchers drew participants’ blood before the viral exposure to test for levels of rhinovirus antibody, a defensive agent in the immune system that recognizes and attacks rhinovirus. If they found high, preexisting levels of the protective protein, they removed the participant from the study so that prior immunity would not bias the infection rates of the group.In order to officially register as “sick,” participants had to exhibit one “objective sign of illness” and one other immune response. Signs of illness revolved around mucus production. After viral exposure, scientists collected used tissues daily and, essentially, weighed the snot. Ten grams or more counted as a sign of illness. They also looked at congestion. The researchers dripped a harmless dye into participants’ noses and waited to see how long it took to reach the back of their throats; longer than 35 minutes tallied as a sign of illness. A valid immune response required one of two things: A mucus sample flushed from a participant’s nasal passage had to show signs of viral replication or blood work needed to show new levels of the rhinovirus-fighting antibody.last_img read more

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