Experiment to Clarify Ancient Physics Discovery Yields More Questions

first_img Explore further Citation: Experiment to Clarify Ancient Physics Discovery Yields More Questions (2007, August 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-08-ancient-physics-discovery-yields.html Scientists at Rutgers University have recently completed an experiment designed to help illuminate the phenomenon (known as the triboelectric effect) – but that initially left them scratching their heads instead.In the July 31, 2007, online edition of Physical Review Letters, they describe their experiment: separating a mixture of red and blue “art-sand” particles by pouring them into a positively charged acrylic cylinder using a miniature version of a “vibratory feeder,” a machine typically used to move dry goods from storage hoppers into processing machines. The scientists charged the cylinder triboelectrically by rubbing it with a nylon glove. Based on this initial condition, they expected to the grains to exhibit certain behaviors.As the grains traveled down the feeder, they became positively charged due to friction. When they reached the end and fell through the air, they cleanly separated into two streams – one red and one blue – and formed two piles on the bottom of the cylinder. The experiment is similar to one performed in the 19th century by British physicist Lord Kelvin, who noticed that a charged stream of water droplets induced a charge in a second water-droplet stream positioned next to it.Due to the slightly different chemical composition of the grains, the blue grains pick up slightly more positive charge than the red. The scientists assumed, based on the law of electrostatics, that each positively charged blue grain would induce a negative charge on the metal feeder. Accordingly, they reasoned that because the blue grains have more positive charge, they would feel a stronger pull toward the feeder than the red and fall as close to the feeder as possible.Oddly, the opposite behavior occurred: The red grains fell closer to the feeder.Upon examining the feeder, the group noticed that a small beard of red grains, perhaps five or 10 grains thick, had built up on the feeder lip. This was also odd, since the blue grains carry more positive charge and were more likely to stick. Further, no blue grains stuck to the beard, but rather, as the scientists write, a “paradoxical repulsion” took place. The blue grains glided over the red and over the edge.Thus, the two colors separated before they fell. It appears, therefore, that the positive charge on the cylinder did not influence the grains’ behavior.Fernando Muzzio, a scientist involved in the study, told PhysOrg.com that he and his colleagues had also subjected some “real-world” materials to the same experimental setup, including typical pharmaceutical powders, which have the potential to experience these triboelectric-induced issues during processing. The group observed essentially the same results.“I suspect that once we start looking, we will find similar unexpected behaviors in many places. It remains for future study to determine the extent to which these phenomena can be controlled to avoid quality problems, or even better, to develop new methods of processing,” Muzzio said.Citation: Amit Mehotra, Fernando J. Muzzio, and Troy Shinbrot, “Spontaneous Separation of Charged Grains” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 058001 (2007) Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. To the Moon and back: 50 years on, a giant leap into the unknowncenter_img In approximately 600 B.C., the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletos discovered that rubbing certain materials together, such as amber and wool, can cause both to become electrically charged, one positive and one negative. This phenomenon is useful for several industrial processes, including printing and filtration, and has sparked much interest and study. Still, scientists cannot fully explain how rubbing-induced charge transfer occurs or how that transfer affects surrounding objects. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Computer Keyboard Hacking

first_img New computer attack mimics user’s keystroke characteristics and evades detection The researchers found that most modern keyboards generate electromagnetic emanations that can be used to decipher the keystrokes remotely. They used some basic instruments to “sniff” these electromagnetic emissions, which eventually helped them to decipher the keystrokes typed.By using a wireless aerial, keystrokes were sniffed from a computer located a meter away. Once the data is sniffed, it is converted into decipherable text with software developed by Vuagnoux.Another test revealed that keystrokes, from a computer in an adjacent room 20 to 30 feet away, could be deciphered by using a larger antenna. It has been conclude that wired computer keyboards, sold in stores, generate compromising emanations that make it not safe to transmit sensitive information.Electromagnetic eavesdropping dates back to as early as the mid 1980s, if not earlier. But Researchers say many of today´s keyboards have been adapted to prevent those attacks from working. Current research now shows that even these keyboards are vulnerable to electromagnetic sniffing.It can be seen that such attacks would be limited due to electromagnetic interference from other electrical devices. The other thing that makes the attack unfeasible is the amount of sophisticated equipment required. Given all the fuss and expense, why not just use a more conventional method. Compromising Electromagnetic Emanations of Keyboards Experiment 1/2Compromising Electromagnetic Emanations of Keyboards Experiment 2/2Related links: lasecwww.epfl.ch/keyboard/ www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/ih98-tempest.pdf Citation: Computer Keyboard Hacking (2008, October 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-10-keyboard-hacking.html Explore furthercenter_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Swiss researchers from the Security and Cryptography Laboratory have demonstrated different ways of eavesdropping on wired keyboards from at least 11 different models. The keyboards range from the latest ones to the ones used in 2001. Test show that all these keyboards were vulnerable to at least four of their attacks.last_img read more

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Astronomers study the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376 and its radio relics

first_img Explore further Using the Suzaku space telescope, astronomers have conducted an X-ray spectral study of the nearby merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376 and its two arc-shaped radio relics. The new research reveals more insights into the properties of the radio sources in this cluster. The findings are presented in a paper published June 20 on arXiv.org. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Two radio relics discovered in the galaxy cluster Abell 168 © 2018 Phys.org Abell 3376 is a nearby bright and moderately massive merging galaxy cluster. It has two giant arc-shaped radio relics in its outskirts. Radio relics are diffuse, elongated radio sources of synchrotron origin, occurring usually in the form of spectacular single or double symmetric arcs at the peripheries of galaxy clusters.Merging galaxy clusters like Abell 3376 are excellent places to search for radio relics and study them, as such sources originate in acceleration and re-acceleration at merger shocks. However, given that the number of known radio relics associated with merger shocks is still small, astronomers are interested in more detailed studies of those sources already identified in merging systems.Abell 3376 with its radio sources has been a subject of a recent study conducted by a team of researchers led by Igone Urdampilleta of the SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research in Utrecht, The Netherlands. They analyzed observational data collected by the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) onboard NASA/JAXA Suzaku astronomy satellite, complemented by archival data provided by ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope and NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory.The analysis uncovered more details regarding the properties of Abell 3376’s radio relics and could contribute to better understanding of the process of galaxy merging.”We present an X-ray spectral analysis of the nearby double radio relic merging cluster Abell 3376 (z = 0.046), observed with the Suzaku XIS instrument. These deep (~360 ks) observations cover the entire double relic region in the outskirts of the cluster,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.As a result of the analysis, the researchers confirmed that Abell 3376 exhibits a stronger merger shock in the western direction (coincident with the radio relic in the West), a weaker shock in the East (possibly associated to the “notch” of eastern relic), and a cold front. The velocities of the western and eastern shocks were calculated to be about 1,630 and 1,450 km/s respectively.When it comes to the cold front, the astronomers found that it is located approximately 490,000 light years from the X-ray emission peak at the center and delimits a cool gas cloud moving with a velocity of approximately 1,300 km/s.Furthermore, assuming that the shock fronts are moving with constant velocity, Urdampilleta’s team found that the time since core passage is about 600 million years, which is in good agreement with previous simulations and with earlier multiwavelength analyses. The authors of the paper emphasize that their results confirm that Abell 3376 is still an evolving merging cluster.”Based on the shock speed calculated from the Mach numbers, we estimate that the dynamical age of the shock front is ~0.6 Gyr after core passage, indicating that Abell 3376 is still an evolving merging cluster and that the merger is taking place close to the plane of the sky,” the scientists concluded. Citation: Astronomers study the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376 and its radio relics (2018, July 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-astronomers-merging-galaxy-cluster-abell.html Composite image of the galaxy cluster Abell 3376. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/A. Vikhlinin; ROSAT Optical: DSS Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA/IUCAA/J.Bagchi. More information: X-ray study of the double radio relic Abell 3376 with Suzaku, arXiv:1806.07817 [astro-ph.GA] arxiv.org/abs/1806.07817AbstractWe present an X-ray spectral analysis of the nearby double radio relic merging cluster Abell 3376 (z = 0.046), observed with the Suzaku XIS instrument. These deep (∼360 ks) observations cover the entire double relic region in the outskirts of the cluster. These diffuse radio structures are amongst the largest and arc-shaped relics observed in combination with large-scale X-ray shocks in a merging cluster. We confirm the presence of a stronger shock (MW = 2.8 ± 0.4) in the western direction at r∼26′, derived from a temperature and surface brightness discontinuity across the radio relic. In the East, we detect a weaker shock (ME = 1.5 ± 0.1) at r∼8′, possibly associated to the ‘notch’ of eastern relic, and a cold front at r∼3′. Based on the shock speed calculated from the Mach numbers, we estimate that the dynamical age of the shock front is ∼0.6 Gyr after core passage, indicating that Abell 3376 is still an evolving merging cluster and that the merger is taking place close to the plane of the sky. These results are consistent with simulations and optical and weak lensing studies from the literature.last_img read more

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Rhythmic oscillations detected in the blazar Markarian 501

first_img Blazars, classified as members of a larger group of active galaxies that host active galactic nuclei (AGN), are the most numerous extragalactic gamma-ray sources. Their characteristic features are relativistic jets pointed almost exactly toward the Earth. In general, blazars are perceived by astronomers as high-energy engines serving as natural laboratories to study particle acceleration, relativistic plasma processes, magnetic field dynamics and black hole physics.Located some 456 million light-years away, Markarian 501 (or Mrk 501 for short) is a blazar or a BL Lac source, with a spectrum extending to the highest energy gamma rays. It is one of the nearest blazars that shines bright in the X-ray and one of the earliest extragalactic sources detected in the TeV band.Within the last decade, Mrk 501 was observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. A group of astronomers led by Gopal Bhatta of the Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, has analyzed the observational data of Mrk 501 collected by LAT between August 2008 and June 2018. The study resulted in the detection of rhythmic oscillations in the blazar’s gamma-ray emission.”In this letter, we report the detection of transient rhythmic oscillations in the about 10-year long Fermi/LAT observations of the famous blazar Mrk 501,” the researchers wrote in the paper.According to the study, the astronomers found a strong signal of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) with a periodicity of around 332 days. They added that the gamma-ray flux modulations in this blazar gradually decayed in strength during the recent years.Furthermore, the researchers emphasized that the gamma-ray QPO in Mrk 501 persisted nearly seven cycles until it finally weakened. Given that not many gamma-ray QPOs have been found to show more than five cycles, the case of Mrk 501, according to the authors of the paper, might be one of the few examples in which astronomers witness a relatively high frequency with a period of less than a year.”What we have observed might be the first interesting event where we witness a transient gamma-ray periodic modulations in the high energy emission of the blazar that persist up to 7 cycles before they gradually fade away,” the paper reads.The study also presents several hypotheses about what could be the driving force behind such rhythmic oscillations in Mrk 501. The scientists suggest various scenarios, including supermassive binary black holes, jet precession and accretion disk precessing under gravitational torque. However, the researchers concluded that further analysis of Mrk 501 and discussion on the topic are needed in order to definitely determine the most plausible theory explaining the origin of the oscillations in this blazar. Weighted wavelet z-transform of γ-ray light curve for the blazar Mrk 501. The left panel shows the distribution of color-scaled WWZ power in the time-period plane, and the right panel shows the time averaged power (blue curve) as a function of period. The magenta and the red curves show the 90 and 99 percent local significance contours, respectively, from the MC simulations. Credit: Bhatta et al., 2018. Astronomers have detected transient rhythmic oscillations in the gamma-ray emission from the blazar Markarian 501. The discovery, reported in a paper published August 18 on the arXiv pre-print server could be helpful in improving our understanding of energetic processes taking place in the universe. Explore further Multiple gamma-ray emission regions detected in the blazar 3C 279 Citation: Rhythmic oscillations detected in the blazar Markarian 501 (2018, August 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-08-rhythmic-oscillations-blazar-markarian.html © 2018 Phys.org More information: Blazar Mrk 501 shows rhythmic oscillations in its γ-ray emission, arXiv:1808.06067 [astro-ph.HE] arxiv.org/abs/1808.06067 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Patent talk Newcar smell removal courting consumers in China

first_img Phoebe Wall Howard in Detroit Free Press reported that Ford filed a patent application for an odor-removal process that gets rid of new-car smells once the car is purchased. “The car would determine whether conditions are right to expel compounds, and the car would drive itself to a place in the sun and bake away the offensive odor.”This might make some American new-car hopefuls scratch their heads over what could be bad about the new-car smell, but there it is: consumer tastes in different parts of the world are not the same. “Consumers in China say they hate the new car smell,” said the Detroit Free Press. “Consumer feedback from Chinese buyers in recent years has been consistent. More than 10 percent of drivers complained about the issue according to the 2018 J.D. Power China Initial Quality Study,” said Howard.Yes, but that is just China. Ford has the rest of the world to delight, so why be so concerned? Detroit Free Press: “China is the largest car market in the world, so carmakers take notice.” [Smell testers pay attention to odors of every car item, from floor carpets to steering wheel. The goal is to reject any that may offend a buyer, Quartz noted.] J.D. Power’s Brent Gruber was quoted as saying that, in that market, unpleasant interior smell/odor remained the top industry problem. “To put that in context, it is nearly double the problem rate of the second most prevalent problem, excessive fuel consumption.”As for a new-car analysis of what constituents cause the smell, the finding was that it is a result of “volatile organic compounds given off by leather, plastic and vinyl,” said Howard. In addition, smell contributors may be the chemicals used to attach and seal car parts. The Verge named the source of “new car smell” as having to do with heating of materials such as wood and leather. More information: Reactive hydroxylated and carboxylated polymers for use as adhesion promoters, United States Patent Application, 20180327540. Credit: CC0 Public Domain “Mmm. Love the smell of a new car!” How often have you heard from that from a starstruck passenger getting his or her first ride in your cruiser. Not so fast. One man’s new-car nirvana is another’s eeew. Evidently, Ford is thinking of not having to appease either side by keeping it simple stupid: bake out the smell altogether. Ford has an application for a patent that features a system to put an end to the smell. © 2018 Science X Network Video: Petrichor, the smell of raincenter_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. So, what does the patent talk about as a solution? Speed up the heating process. Bake it off. Quartz elaborated: “The baking process would be accompanied by opening at least one window, turning on the heater, turning on the fan, or running the engine. Ford’s proposed system would use sensors to determine if the intensity of the sunlight and the ambient temperature are high enough to trigger the off-gassing and to measure the level of VOCs.”Sean O’Kane, The Verge: “The patent application describes semi-autonomous or fully autonomous cars driving themselves to a nice, sunny spot (probably on some hot asphalt), parking, turning on the heat, slightly cracking the windows, and intermittently running the engine. In this scenario, the vehicle ‘bakes’ away the ‘new car smell.'”Beyond the process devised as a solution in the patent filing, the interesting outcome of this patent application is in the disclosure itself that was spotlighted, a smell perception divide between the U.S. and China. That disclosure is that the very same smell that delighted Americans turned off Chinese. Is smell that much of a cultural mystique?Actually, reader reactions and story comments on various sites offered interesting responses to explain divided opinions over whether a new car represented scent or stink.Americans, suggested one reaction, had positive smell associations, regarding a car as a new as a new addition in life—like walking into a new house, with all its smells of stray shavings, paint thinners and cleaning solvents.In China, consumers might be especially concerned over factory fallout versus public health. “As Quartz has reported in the past, Chinese consumers who are car shopping think the odor is a bigger problem than poor fuel economy and wind noise, as some worry the smell could be a health hazard.”Last year, a Journal of Environmental Sciences paper titled “Ambient volatile organic compounds pollution in China” said that “Owing to rapid economic and industrial development, China has been suffering from degraded air quality and visibility. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone and hence photochemical smog.” The authors stated that VOCs elicited not only public concern but also a new impetus to scientific interest. Explore further Citation: Patent talk: New-car smell removal courting consumers in China (2018, November 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-patent-new-car-courting-consumers-china.htmllast_img read more

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And we have the winners

first_imgOn Saturday night, 27 April,  three bands took to the stage to see who would be crowned the first Delhi Indie Night: Battle of the Bands Champions. The Alibi, Pilgrim and Tarik had won their respective heats earlier in the month, and now it was time to see which of these would prove to be the fans’ favourite.By the end of the night, the six-piece outfit Pilgrim was declared the overall winners of the month-long competition. The upbeat and rhythmic indie music, which has made them so popular, had the crowd in raptures by the end of their performance. And following the audience vote (after all three bands had played) it was Pilgrim who ran out deserved winners. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Winning this competition was no mean feat, especially since sixty bands entered, with twelve of those being chosen to perform live over three Saturdays in April. All twelve bands put on fantastic sets, and each of them helped to make this competition one of the most successful and popular live events in Delhi this year – with over 800 people in attendance throughout.Pilgrim, having been crowned champions, will now receive the following prize package: The coveted Delhi Indie Night: Battle of the Bands Winners’ Trophy – A one-hour slot on the Radio One (94.3 FM) Drive in Delhi evening show;  a music video shot and produced by Red Door Productions and some more treats. Enthusiastic audience, some hard-core talent and a lot of music and days later, the competition comes to a close and we cannot wait for next year!last_img read more

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Thailand ahoy

first_imgLike every year, this year again on 7 July, students of United Group of Institutions are on their International Summer Education workshop at Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand. UGI aims to develop highly talented and committed professionals who can play lead role in the corporate world at global environment.80 students from various courses like MBA, PGDM and B.Tech were shortlisted on the basis of their academic performance, on-line selection test and final personal interview round. Along with them eminent faculty members are also on tour for assisting the students with ever ready mentorship and guidance. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’This tour aims for management students to explore their knowledge and enhance managerial skills like team management, leadership, decision making skill, total quality management, stress management & develop their overall interpersonal skills. While engineering students from different branches gets in depth practical session on Computer Science, Industrial system engineering, remote sensing, telecommunication, mechatronics, geographical information system, water engineering management and various updates on emerging trends and technological advancements in their respective branch/stream.last_img read more

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Land of the black gold

first_imgWills Lifestyle Fashion Week (WIFW) 2014, the Autumn Winter edition kicked off amidst a lot of high energy and excitement. Scheduled to take grip over the Capital till 30 March, the WIFW Autumn Winter ball was set rolling by Tarun Tahliani on Wednesday. Following the high octane show that had the sexy Shilpa Shetty walking the ramp,  Anupamaa Dayal,  Vineet Bahl, Kiran Uttam Ghosh, Raakesh Agarvwal, Shantanu &Nikhil and finally Rina Dhaka brought Day 1 to a close. Raakesh Agarvwal and Shantanu & Nikhil get the thumbs up from us – we loved their collections. Agarvwal played with bold sexy cuts in black and gold while Shantanu & Nikhil took us on a dream reverie of lace, chiffon and some stunning filigree details. Black and gold dominated Day 1 almost unanimously making way for rich reds, greens, blues and some very delicate pinks.last_img read more

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Descent of the gods

first_imgBased on 10th chapter of the Shrimad Bhagwad and inspired by Late Kamla Devi Chattopadhyay, Sharadotsav (Maha Raas Leela) – Nritya Natika in Kathak and Brindaban Braj Raas style on the auspicious occasion of Sharad Purnima is a cultural venture that is more than three decades ago. The production is the culmination of extensive research and authentic imbibing of the Brindaban Braj Raas under expert Gurus in the art. They have been holding this performance for the past 37 years and this is one of the most awaited three days cultural event of the Capital. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Uma Sharma, the renowned Kathak exponent has done pioneering research work on the Raas dance and drama of Brindaban. Over a decade ago she studied the technique under the guidance of Pt. Ladli Sharan Sharma the octogenarian authority on the style. She has now evolved a fine blend of Kathak and Raas Leela for her annual presentation of Maha Raas at Sharad Utsav. This year the performance was held over 6, 7 and 8 October at the Lakshmi Narayan Temple (Birla Mandir).last_img read more

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People from all walks of life celebrate RD Burmans 80th birth anniversary

first_imgKolkata: The 80th birth anniversary of RD Burman was observed with great enthusiasm by people from all walks of life garlanding his statue on Southern Avenue.Music lovers representing different age groups and even children in school uniform on way to schools garlanded his statue. It confirms RD magic and his influence on the people of present generation.Meanwhile, RD Burman fans will request the state government to take over the building constructed by SD Burman at South End Park. SD Burman began construction of the house in 1944 and started staying there from 1946. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsHe stayed in the two storeyed house until 1952 when he shifted to Mumbai. But he used to come two to three times every year till his death.RD spent his childhood in the house. He was very popular in the area and from school days, could play many musical instruments and sing. He was a brilliant mouth organ player.SD’s house was visited by all great musicians, singers and composers of that era. Now, the building is in shambles. Trees have come all over the place. The plaster is peeling off and the windows and doors are falling. The present owner of the building does not look after the structure. Subrata Mukherjee as Mayor had declared the structure as Grade II Heritage Building. RD fans said the state government should acquire the building and set up an archive or a sound studio.last_img read more

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