Astronomers study the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376 and its radio relics

first_img Explore further Using the Suzaku space telescope, astronomers have conducted an X-ray spectral study of the nearby merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376 and its two arc-shaped radio relics. The new research reveals more insights into the properties of the radio sources in this cluster. The findings are presented in a paper published June 20 on This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Two radio relics discovered in the galaxy cluster Abell 168 © 2018 Abell 3376 is a nearby bright and moderately massive merging galaxy cluster. It has two giant arc-shaped radio relics in its outskirts. Radio relics are diffuse, elongated radio sources of synchrotron origin, occurring usually in the form of spectacular single or double symmetric arcs at the peripheries of galaxy clusters.Merging galaxy clusters like Abell 3376 are excellent places to search for radio relics and study them, as such sources originate in acceleration and re-acceleration at merger shocks. However, given that the number of known radio relics associated with merger shocks is still small, astronomers are interested in more detailed studies of those sources already identified in merging systems.Abell 3376 with its radio sources has been a subject of a recent study conducted by a team of researchers led by Igone Urdampilleta of the SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research in Utrecht, The Netherlands. They analyzed observational data collected by the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) onboard NASA/JAXA Suzaku astronomy satellite, complemented by archival data provided by ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope and NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory.The analysis uncovered more details regarding the properties of Abell 3376’s radio relics and could contribute to better understanding of the process of galaxy merging.”We present an X-ray spectral analysis of the nearby double radio relic merging cluster Abell 3376 (z = 0.046), observed with the Suzaku XIS instrument. These deep (~360 ks) observations cover the entire double relic region in the outskirts of the cluster,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.As a result of the analysis, the researchers confirmed that Abell 3376 exhibits a stronger merger shock in the western direction (coincident with the radio relic in the West), a weaker shock in the East (possibly associated to the “notch” of eastern relic), and a cold front. The velocities of the western and eastern shocks were calculated to be about 1,630 and 1,450 km/s respectively.When it comes to the cold front, the astronomers found that it is located approximately 490,000 light years from the X-ray emission peak at the center and delimits a cool gas cloud moving with a velocity of approximately 1,300 km/s.Furthermore, assuming that the shock fronts are moving with constant velocity, Urdampilleta’s team found that the time since core passage is about 600 million years, which is in good agreement with previous simulations and with earlier multiwavelength analyses. The authors of the paper emphasize that their results confirm that Abell 3376 is still an evolving merging cluster.”Based on the shock speed calculated from the Mach numbers, we estimate that the dynamical age of the shock front is ~0.6 Gyr after core passage, indicating that Abell 3376 is still an evolving merging cluster and that the merger is taking place close to the plane of the sky,” the scientists concluded. Citation: Astronomers study the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376 and its radio relics (2018, July 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Composite image of the galaxy cluster Abell 3376. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/A. Vikhlinin; ROSAT Optical: DSS Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA/IUCAA/J.Bagchi. More information: X-ray study of the double radio relic Abell 3376 with Suzaku, arXiv:1806.07817 [astro-ph.GA] present an X-ray spectral analysis of the nearby double radio relic merging cluster Abell 3376 (z = 0.046), observed with the Suzaku XIS instrument. These deep (∼360 ks) observations cover the entire double relic region in the outskirts of the cluster. These diffuse radio structures are amongst the largest and arc-shaped relics observed in combination with large-scale X-ray shocks in a merging cluster. We confirm the presence of a stronger shock (MW = 2.8 ± 0.4) in the western direction at r∼26′, derived from a temperature and surface brightness discontinuity across the radio relic. In the East, we detect a weaker shock (ME = 1.5 ± 0.1) at r∼8′, possibly associated to the ‘notch’ of eastern relic, and a cold front at r∼3′. Based on the shock speed calculated from the Mach numbers, we estimate that the dynamical age of the shock front is ∼0.6 Gyr after core passage, indicating that Abell 3376 is still an evolving merging cluster and that the merger is taking place close to the plane of the sky. These results are consistent with simulations and optical and weak lensing studies from the literature.last_img read more

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ET The outbreak has killed more than 4500 in West Africa is remains unchecked in Liberia Sierra Leone and Guinea so Nigeria is by no means immune to another outbreak “It’s possible to control Ebola It’s possible to defeat Ebola We’ve seen it here in Nigeria” Nigerian Minister of Health Onyebuchi Chukwu told TIME “If any cases emerge in the future it will be consideredby international standardsa separate outbreak If that happens Nigeria will be ready and able to confront it exactly as we have done with this outbreak” For the WHO to declare Nigeria as Ebola-free the country had to make it 42 days with no new cases (double the incubation period) verify that it actively sought out all possible contacts and show negative test results for any suspected cases Nigeria had 20 cases of Ebola after a Liberian-American man named Patrick Sawyer flew into Lagos and collapsed at the airport Health care workers treating Sawyer were infected and as it spread it ultimately killed eight people a low number next to the thousands of cases and deaths in other countries Nigerias health system is considered more robust but there was significant concern from experts that a case would pop up in one of the country’s dense-populated slums and catch fire So what did Nigeria do right Chukwu and Dr Faisal Shuaib of the country’s Ebola Emergency Operation Center broke it down for TIME Preparing early Nigeria knew it was possible a case of Ebola would make it into the country so officials got to work early by training health care workers on how to manage the disease and disseminating information so the country knew what to expect Declaring an emergencyright away When Nigeria had its first confirmed case of Ebola the government declared a national public health emergency immediately This allowed the Ministry of Health to form its Ebola Emergency Operations Center (EOC) The EOC is an assembly of public health experts within Nigeria as well as the WHO Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and groups like Doctors Without Borders "[We] used a war-room approach to coordinate the outbreak response" Shuaib said "So you have a situation whereby government and staff of international development agencies are co-located in a designated facility where they are able to agree on strategies develop one plan and implement this plan together" The EOC was in charge of contact tracing (the process of identifying and monitoring people who may have had direct or indirect contact with Ebola patients) implementing strict procedures for handling and treating patients screening all individuals arriving or departing the country by land air and sea and communicating with the community Some workers went door-to-door to offer Ebola-related education and others involved religious and professional leaders Social media was a central part of the education response Training local doctors Nigerian doctors were trained by Doctors Without Borders and WHO and treated patients in shifts with their oversight Managing fear "Expectedly people were scared of contracting the disease" Shuaib said "In the beginning there was also some misinformation about available cures so fear and inaccurate rumors had to be actively managed" Nigeria used social media to to ramp up awareness efforts and publicized patients who were successfully treated and discharged "People began to realize that contracting Ebola was not necessarily a death sentence" Shuai said "Emphasizing that reporting early to the hospital boosts survival gave comfort that [a person] has some level of control over the disease prognosis" Keeping borders open Nigeria has not closed its borders to travelers from Guinea Sierra Leone and Liberia saying the move would be counterproductive "Closing borders tends to reinforce panic and the notion of helplessness" Shuaib said "When you close the legal points of entry then you potentially drive people to use illegal passages thus compounding the problem" Shuaib said that if public health strategies are implemented outbreaks can be controlled and that closing borders would only stifle commercial activities in the countries whose economies are already struggling due to Ebola Remaining prepared for more patients Even though this outbreak was contained Nigeria is not slowing down its training and preparations for the possibility of more cases "Outbreak response preparedness is a continuous process that requires constant review of the level of the response mechanisms in place to ensure that the health system is ready to jump into action at all levels" Shuaib said "There is no alternative to preparedness" Advocating for more international response "The global community needs to consistently come together act as one in any public health emergency whether it is Ebola or a natural disaster" Shuaib said "While a lot has been done it still falls short of what is necessary to get ahead of the curve We must act now not tomorrow not next week" Read next: Dozens Who Had Contact With the First US 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