Mouse studies offer new insights about cocaine’s effect on the brain

first_imgShare on Twitter Pinterest LinkedIn Share on Facebook Researchers have long used cocaine as a model to study how certain messages are transmitted in the brain. And Greengard’s group, which investigates the molecular basis of communication between nerve cells in the brains of mammals, has studied WAVE1, a protein involved in cell signaling, for more than a decade. But their PNAS study reveals something new about the way in which WAVE1 and dopamine interact.“We knew about the connection between WAVE1 and dopamine many years ago, but until now no one knew the mechanism of how cocaine stimulates WAVE1 and how WAVE1 regulates cocaine’s actions,” says Yong Kim, a Research Assistant Professor in Greengard’s lab and the senior author of the new study.No WAVE1, no rewardIn the new work, the team observed that WAVE1 became active in the brain of mice exposed to cocaine, and that this cocaine effect on WAVE1 could be prevented by blocking dopamine receptors. The research also provides new clues about how WAVE1 influences changes in the brain’s synapses– the junctions between nerves through which impulses pass–in response to cocaine exposure.Specifically, the investigators looked at changes in an area of the brain called the nucleus accumbens, a key component of the neural reward system that is known to play a critical part in addiction–and in which dopamine is heavily involved. When these synapses form, they allow the signals from dopamine and another neurotransmitter called glutamate to be transmitted.To investigate the interaction between WAVE1 and dopamine more specifically, the team looked at mice that had WAVE1 selectively removed in nerve cells. These nerve cells also contained one of the subtypes of dopamine receptor (called D1). They found a significant decrease in the preference for cocaine in these mice, compared with those producing normal WAVE1 levels. This suggested that the dopamine signals were not being transmitted.However, this effect was not seen when WAVE1 was removed from nerve cells containing a different dopamine receptor subtype (called D2). Those results suggest previously unknown details about how cocaine works.Addiction intervention“It’s well known that cocaine increases the signaling of dopamine in the brain,” Kim says. “Understanding more about the mechanism of cocaine action is providing new insight into the neurobiology of addiction. Our eventual goal is to use these findings to find a way to develop a drug to treat addiction.”However, Kim says there are limitations to the current work, largely because the mice were injected with cocaine by the researchers. Future studies will need a system in which the mice can self-administer the cocaine by pushing a lever and injecting themselves, a model that more closely mimics human addiction behavior.center_img Share Email Cocaine is one of the most addictive substances known to man, and for good reason: By acting on levels of the “feel-good” chemical dopamine, it produces a tremendous sensation of euphoria.Now the laboratory of Rockefeller University Professor and Nobel Laureate Paul Greengard has shown for the first time in mice how a protein called WAVE1 regulates the brain’s response to cocaine. Their discovery, which was published recently in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offers fundamental insights into the brain’s inner workings–and could lead to better interventions for treating addiction to cocaine and other drugs.Cocaine and the brainlast_img read more

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14 April update – 11 of Saint Lucia’s 15 COVID-19 cases have Recovered

first_img Six Eastern Caribbean countries deemed safe for travel – CDC This quarantine period allows for monitoring contacts who develop signs and symptoms over the incubation period of the particular disease. We use the designated quarantine facilities for persons who travel into Saint Lucia from areas of high risk and persons who were in contact with any positive cases who do not have signs and symptoms. There are certain cases when assessed by the Ministry of Health require that the individual be placed on home quarantine among these being if the individual is confined to the bed and unable to function independently. Today, Tuesday April 14, 2020 Saint Lucia continues on a 10 hour curfew from 7 p.m. to 5 a.m. daily. Some of the national protocols which apply to this include: remain at home leaving only for food or medical purposes, avoid mass crowd events and social gatherings, practice physical distancing and good personal hygiene. St. Lucia records more cases of COVID CMO says Saint Lucia at critical stage of COVID-19 outbreak As of April 14, 2020, Saint Lucia has a total of 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19. Follow-up tests were also conducted on the confirmed cases in care and to date a total of 11 of the confirmed 15 COVID-19 patients have recovered. Presently there are 25 persons in quarantine and 20 in isolation.Quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of persons who are well and may have been exposed to a communicable disease like COVID-19. Oct 16, 2020 Oct 15, 2020 Oct 16, 2020 More deaths from COVID-19 recorded in CARICOM countries,… The public is also advised against going to public places with flu-like symptoms including fever, coughing and sneezing. When visiting the supermarket or public places refrain from touching items unless you intend to purchase them. Essential service workers and the elderly are granted time for grocery shopping to facilitate their timely return to their posts and homes respectively. The public is asked to exhibit patience while these segments of our population are being served. You may be interested in… Oct 15, 2020 Although hardware stores are open in an effort to facilitate household emergencies and increase water storage capacity, the public is reminded that we are still on national scale down. Only leave your house for essential goods. Observe the rules of physical distancing. Saint Lucia is still at a very critical position in the response to the national COVID-19 threat. #StayHome #SaveLives #DefeatCOVID19 Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… Turks and Caicos COVID-19 Update April 21The Ministry of Health would like to advise the public that as at 12am on 21st April, 2020: THE TURKS & CAICOS CONTINUES TO RECORD ONE (1) COVID-19 DEATH. THE TOTAL NUMBER OF CONFIRMED POSITIVE CASES REMAINS AT ELEVEN (11). HOWEVER, FOUR (4) CASES HAVE NOW OFFICIALLY RECOVERED FROM COVID-19; with two…April 21, 2020In “General”Two new cases of COVID-19 in St. LuciaOn Tuesday, April 28, 2020 results of 44 samples for persons tested for COVID-19 were received. Of that batch, we received 2 positive results and 42 negative.The first of the two positive results is a 54 year old female, diabetic, who is a direct contact from a previous positive case…April 29, 2020In “General”Saint Lucia Reports 100 Percent Recovery Of COVID-19 Cases Ministry of Health, Castries – As of April 21, 2020 the WHO reported a total of 2, 397, 217 confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally with 162, 956 deaths. There are now 893, 119 confirmed cases in the region of the Americas. The affected region includes Dominican Republic (4,964), Haiti (47),…April 22, 2020In “Featured”Share this on WhatsApplast_img read more

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Team Shield wins 2015 UWF volleyball intrasquad scrimmage

first_imgPENSACOLA, Fla. – The University of West Florida volleyball team played its annual intrasquad scrimmage in the UWF Field House on Friday, April 17. West Florida is coming off a 2014 fall season that saw the team reach the NCAA South Regional Tournament for the ninth straight season. “This intrasquad scrimmage was a great culmination of an incredibly productive spring season,” head coach Melissa Wolter said. “Our players were looking forward to it all week and the spectators saw a great five-set match.” Team Shield came out on top in the intrasquad match with a 3-2 victory over Team Argo. UWF redshirt freshman Jade Jones (Tallahassee, Fla./Leon HS) led Team Shield offensively with 15 kills at a .278 clip while sophomore Corisha Smith (Inwood, W.Va./Musselman HS) added 14 kills with 12 digs on the night. Jones was consistent throughout the match and had an impressive fifth set with four kills off five swings at a .800 clip. Jones also added seven blocks in the win with three blocks in the second set. “Team Shield started off slow but finished strong,” Wolter said. “After they made the push to take the match to a 5th set, they completely controlled the outcome. They exhibited great offensive power in having multiple players contribute to the win. Monique StCyr did a great job of spreading the ball around keeping the opposing defense off balance.” UWF senior Autumn Duyn (Venice, Fla./Venice HS) led Team Argo offensively on the night with 15 kills while redshirt junior Kathryn Torre (Highland, Ill./State College of Florida) added 14 kills at a .300 clip with four blocks in the match. Torre came alive in the third set tallying seven kills off 10 swings with only one error at a .500 clip. Sophomore Holly Mattmuller (Venice, Fla./Venice HS) also had a productive night offensively with 12 kills at a .244 clip while adding 13 digs. “Team Argo played great volleyball throughout the match, but didn’t close out that fourth set which really hurt them in the end,” Wolter said. “Autumn (Duyn) played steady throughout and Kat (Torre) had some moments of brilliance. Unfortunately, it wasn’t enough to bring home the win.” UWF freshman setter Monique StCyr (Williamsburg, Va./Jamestown HS) had 43 assists for Team Shield and also tallied five kills and an impressive 21 digs in the win. Redshirt freshman Hannah Beach (Birmingham, Ala./Oak Mountain HS) had 44 assists for Team Argo and added three kills and 11 digs. West Florida junior Colleen Starrs (West Bloomfield, Mich./Walled Lake Central HS) led Team Shield defensively with 29 digs while Duyn and sophomore Tori Martella (Jacksonville, Fla./Providence HS) both had 22 digs in the match to lead Team Argo defensively. The West Florida volleyball program has won six Gulf South Conference championships in program history and has had nine AVCA All-America selections since the program began in 2000. Head coach Melissa Wolter was named the AVCA South-Region Coach of the Year in 2012 and is a four-time GSC Coach of the Year. For information on all UWF athletics, visit www.GoArgos.com. #ARGOS# Team Argo#   NameClassPosition2Tori MartellaSo.DS/L3Kathryn TorreJr.MB6Hannah BeachFr.RS/S9Emily Cosgrove  RFr.MB11Autumn DuynSr.OH12Holly MattmullerSo.OHTeam Shield#NameClassPosition1Monique StCyrFr.S5Jade JonesFr.MB8Colleen StarrsJr.DS/L10Cora BidlackSo.OH16Corisha SmithSo.OH17Katy Kuhlmeier           Fr.OH Print Friendly Versionlast_img read more

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Pro Bowl

first_imgAll Activity Sports Logos 1 Members 5,392 4,499 All Activity Link to post 124 By jgiff17, January 30, 2017 in Sports Logo News Recommended Posts Ferdinand Cesarano 124 http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/20/news/green-bay-packers-revenue/index.html 4,499 Or they could use the clean, dignified uniforms that they used to use.     271 Sports Logo News Or they could use the clean, dignified uniforms that they used to use.     Share this post Share this post http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/20/news/green-bay-packers-revenue/index.html 25 minutes ago, jgiff17 said: Posted January 31, 2017 629 Share on other sites Share this post Followers 1 Sykotyk 5,026 MJWalker45 Share this post 271 1,170 posts 5,184 posts Link to post oh I would have ABSOLUTELY NO problem with those.  I’d love them in fact.  Just kicking around some ideas.  I always like seeing the white vs grey unis at the MLB all star game.  Kind of fun to see a unifying aspect but different templates. 3,722 posts Posted January 31, 2017 271 271 dont care Posted January 30, 2017 0 Posted January 30, 2017 Share on other sites Posted January 30, 2017 Share this post 0 Forums Home Posted January 31, 2017 124 Share this post 239 posts 5,026 Members Share on other sites Grand Pooba of Walksylvania Members Followers 1 Link to post 28 minutes ago, jgiff17 said: I do like going red v. blue for jerseys, but not the color-rush all one color. I never really liked one team having a ‘home’ jersey and the other a white ‘road’ jersey for the game. i think even with the money being a motivator, players still wouldnt want to get hurt/hurt other players. Their careers are more important than that, also who is paying the 53 million and thats just players, not coaches and other staff for the game. the league wont put out that much cash for one game every year. Link to post prolix proletarian The players get something, already.   953 Share on other sites i think they got 53 mil laying around. Coaches/staff get to be there. They aren’t playing just being there should be enough.  Pro Bowl 1,188 posts 1,188 posts 5,392 4,184 posts With the NFL doing away with one-time helmets, the Pro Bowl will always have player’s team helmets. Which is going to cause a clash for someone. jgiff17 Sports Logos Location:San Antonio, Texas Link to post 0 Forums Home Pro Bowl Sign in to follow this   SportsLogos.Net Members 0 Share this post Members 124 SportsLogos.Net 271 Here is an idea that I have been kicking around.  What if they kept every team’s template intact but replace one of the colors with red on the AFC uniforms and blue on the NFC uniforms.  I know it would make for some interesting and potentially ugly combinations.  Or replace all color palettes with red, white and blue and emphasize red or blue for the corresponding conference.  One other idea I had was to change every color in the palette to various shades of red or blue. jgiff17 Share this post Link to post Pro Bowl I felt like Nike planned on this year’s game being a lottery style game again and ordered the highlighter numbers again before realizing it was AFC vs NFC. The red with volt trim on red jerseys and vice versa are just horrible. I really hope they go back to a more traditional look as far as colors and maybe come up with something a little livelier as far as uniform design. Plain jerseys and pants with no stripes and a monotone design are so lame.  4,499 Posted January 30, 2017 Endzones look good. Uniforms…take out the highlighter and put white in its place and they are golden. To fix the lack of competitiveness of this game to where people might watch it…winning team get 1 million each player loser gets nothing! Also I think it would be cool to have 5 different uniforms for each conference and let the fans vote from week 1 to week 8 for the uniforms. I think each of those ideas would bring some extra viewers. This is a gladiator sport and if you put something extra out there these guys will play and people will watch! Especially since some of these guys might not make 1 million in a year and in one game they could make more than their annual salary…they will play to compete and to win.  jgiff17 Sign in to follow this   Ferdinand Cesarano Share on other sites Milkman14 0 629 jgiff17 5,026 Link to post Members Milkman14 Link to post Members Endzones look good. Uniforms…take out the highlighter and put white in its place and they are golden. To fix the lack of competitiveness of this game to where people might watch it…winning team get 1 million each player loser gets nothing! Also I think it would be cool to have 5 different uniforms for each conference and let the fans vote from week 1 to week 8 for the uniforms. I think each of those ideas would bring some extra viewers. This is a gladiator sport and if you put something extra out there these guys will play and people will watch! Especially since some of these guys might not make 1 million in a year and in one game they could make more than their annual salary…they will play to compete and to win.  22,252 posts 124 0 629 18 minutes ago, Ferdinand Cesarano said: Members Members 0 dont care 271 tohasbo i think they got 53 mil laying around. Coaches/staff get to be there. They aren’t playing just being there should be enough.  Posted January 30, 2017 Share on other sites Milkman14 tohasbo Sports Logo News 953 239 posts 953 Share on other sites 5,392 Sykotyk Link to post 124 This topic is now closed to further replies. MJWalker45 Posted January 31, 2017 Go To Topic Listing 2 Milkman14 Location:New York Share on other sites Share on other sites Share this postlast_img read more

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